LIBRES: Library and Information Science Research
Electronic Journal ISSN 1058-6768
1997 Volume 7 Issue 7; March.


1. Version 6 of the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography
is now available.

(posted: <>
Date: Wed, 19 Mar 97 14:30:28 CST
From: "Charles W. Bailey, Jr." <LIB3@UHUPVM1.UH.EDU>)

Acrobat: <URL:>
Word: <URL:>

The HTML document is designed for interactive use. Each
major section is a separate file. There are live links to
sources available on the Internet. It is searchable.

The Acrobat and Word files are designed for printing.
Each file is over 150 KB.

Table of Contents

1 Economic Issues
2 Electronic Books and Texts
2.1 Case Studies and History
2.2 General Works
2.3 Library Issues
2.4 Related Electronic Resources
3 Electronic Serials
3.1 Case Studies and History
3.2 Critiques
3.3 Electronic Distribution of Printed Journals
3.4 General Works
3.5 Library Issues
3.6 Related Electronic Resources
3.7 Research
4 General Works
4.1 Related Electronic Resources
5 Legal Issues
5.1 Intellectual Property Rights
5.2 Other Legal Issues
5.3 Related Electronic Resources
6 Library Issues
6.1 Cataloging, Classification, and Metadata
6.2 Digital Libraries
6.3 General Works
6.4 Information Conversion, Integrity, and Preservation
6.5 Related Electronic Resources
7 New Publishing Models
8 Publisher Issues
8.1 Related Electronic Resources
Appendix A. Related Bibliographies by the Same Author
Appendix B. About the Author

Best Regards,

Charles W. Bailey, Jr., Assistant Dean for Systems,
University Libraries, University of Houston, Houston, TX
77204-2091. E-mail: Voice: (713) 743-9804.
Fax: (713) 743-9811.


2. Call for Contributions to a special issue of
Interacting with Computers,

(posted: <>
Approved-By: johnson@DCS.GLA.AC.UK
Date: Thu, 3 Oct 1996 09:47:29 +0100)


Research in the field of HCI has begun to focus on the use of distributed
information systems within large work groups. This has increased interest
about previous studies into 'hypertext' navigation and structuring. There has
also been a renewed interest in the delays and timing problems that arise when
users access distributed and shared resources.
Research in IR has begun to look beyond the simplistic evaluation criteria
provided by precision and recall. This has led to a renewed interest in
retrieval activities and patterns of use.

This special edition will look at the common problems facing HCI and IR.
In particular, we welcome papers that consider:
-- novel interaction techniques for information retrieval;
-- the evaluation of IR systems;
-- conversational modelling of information retrieval tasks;
-- understanding the nature of relevance;
-- networked information retrieval;
-- browsing based information retrieval (inc. hypermedia);
-- multimedia information retrieval.
In keeping with the interdisciplinary nature of Interacting with Computers,
submissions are invited from any field, including, for example, science and
technology studies, psychology, information studies, sociology, HCI,
anthropology, and commercial software development.

Please feel free to contact the guest editors if you require any further
information about the topic of this special edition.

Authors are asked to send full papers to the guest editor Chris Johnson
at The University of Glasgow, no later than 30th January (see below).
Further information on the journal, paper types and Guidance for Authors can
be accessed via IwC's home page:
The submission deadline for papers is 30 January 1997, with final revisions
due 30 April.
Qualified referees are invited to e-mail the guest editor an expression of
interest, including current position, institutional affiliation, areas of
expertise and contact details, by 1 December 1996. Referees whose offers to
review are accepted will be sent IwC's Advice to Referees, which specifies
procedures used and standards applied for all submissions to the Journal.
Please note that IwC expects four-week turnaround of articles distributed
for review.


Chris Johnson, Mark Dunlop,
Glasgow Accident Analysis Group, Department of Computer Science,
Department of Computer Science, The University of Glasgow,
The University of Glasgow, Lillybank Gardens,
Lillybank Gardens, Glasgow,
Glasgow, G12 8QQ.
G12 8QQ.

This edition is a joint venture between the British HCI Group and the
Information Retrieval Special Interest Group of the British Computer


3. Vol. 2 no. 2 of Information Research is now available at:

or, if you like frames, at:

(posted: <owner-jesse@UTKVM1.UTK.EDU>
Date: Mon, 28 Oct 1996 10:11:46 +0100)

This issue has three papers:

Stemming and N-gram Matching For Term Conflation In Turkish Texts, by
F. =C7una Ekmek=E7ioglu, Michael F. Lynch, and Peter Willett

The Management Information Needs Of Academic Heads Of Department In
Universities In The United Kingdom, by Brendan Loughridge.

Developing Educational Hypermedia Applications: A Methodological
Approach, by Jos=E9 Miguel Nunes and Susan P. Fowell

Please post to other lists that may be interested.

Professor Tom Wilson
Head of Department of Information Studies
University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, U.K.
Tel. +44-114-282-5081 Fax. +44-114-278-0300
4. D-Lib Magazine.

(various postings: <owner-diglib@INFOSERV.NLC-BNC.CA>
Date: Thu, 31 Oct 1996 15:25:00 -0800)

Subject: October issue of D-Lib Magazine now available!
Date: Wednesday, October 30, 1996 8:47AM

The October issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available at;
the UK Office for Library and Information Networking maintains a mirror site
for D-Lib Magazine at:

In addition to our usual mix of research stories and clips, this month we
are pleased to include a guest editorial on the importance of computing as
an opportunity to play and our first bilingual, English-German story on a
digital library system based on Hyper-G.

A summary of the contents page follows:

Guest Editorial: Why computer modeling should become a popular hobby
Kenneth D. Forbus, Northwestern University

DogitaLS1: A Digital Library System Based on Hyper-G
Klaus Tochtermann
Texas A&M University
Thomas Alders
Dortmund University

DogitaLS1: Ein digitales Bibliothekssystem auf der Basis von Hyper-G

Digital Labels for Digital Libraries
Robert Thibadeau
Carnegie Mellon University

Repository Interoperability Workshop: Towards a Repository Reference Model
William L. Scherlis
Carnegie Mellon University

Digital Conversion of Research Library Materials: A Case for
Full-Informational Capture
Stephen Chapman
Anne R. Kenney
Cornell University Library

D-Lib is produced by the Corporation for National Research Initiatives and
sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) on behalf
of the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative.

Amy Friedlander, Editor, D-Lib Magazine

(posted: <owner-diglib@INFOSERV.NLC-BNC.CA>
Date: Tue, 19 Nov 1996 10:17:00 -0800)

The November issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available at; the UK Office for Library and Information Networking
maintains a mirror site for D-Lib Magazine at:

In addition to our research stories (summarized below), we have short
contributions from Thomas Baker, Gerry McKiernan, and Stephen Chapman and
Anne Kenney on recent workshops and projects.


W3C and Digital Libraries
James S. Miller
World Wide Web Consortium

The New Zealand Digital Library Project
Ian H. Witten, Sally Jo Cunningham, and Mark D. Apperley
University of Waikato

The Cigarette Papers : Issues in Publishing Materials in Multiple Formats
Karen Butter, Robin Chandler, and John Kunze
University of California, San Francisco

How to Build a Digital Librarian
Kirk Hastings and Roy Tennant
The Library, University of California, Berkeley

D-Lib Magazine is produced by the Corporation for National Research
Initiatives and is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA) on behalf of the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative.

William Y. Arms, Chair, D-Lib
Amy Friedlander, Editor, D-Lib Magazine

R.E.B. Arnold, Editorial Assistant
Corporation for National Research Initiatives
1895 Preston White Drive, Suite 100
Reston, VA 20191-5434
The Phone: (703) 620-8990
The Fax: (703) 758-5913
The Net:
The Web:
The Web:
The Web:
D-lib magazine - January

(posted: Return-path: <>
Date: Thu, 16 Jan 1997 12:01:17 +1000)

The January edition of D-lib magazine is now available from:

...main articles being:

* Clarifying Search: A User-Interface Framework for Text Searches by
W. Bruce Croft and Ben Shneiderman
* Ad-Hoc Classification of Electronic Clinical Documents by
Fangfang Feng and David B. Aronow
* Image Description on the Internet: A Summary of the CNI/OCLC Image
Metadata Workshop by Stuart Weibel and Eric Miller
* JSTOR: An IP Practitioner's Perspective by
Sarah E. Sully

Email :
Voice : +61 6 249 4632 Fax: +61 6 279 8120
Details :

Head, Center for Networked Access to Scholarly Information,
Australian National University Library, A.C.T. 0200, AUSTRALIA.

5. ERCIM News - Special Theme Issue on "Digital Libraries"

(posted: <owner-diglib@INFOSERV.NLC-BNC.CA>
Date: Wed, 30 Oct 1996 13:00:00 -0800)

European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics (ERCIM)
has published a special theme issue of the ERCIM News on "Digital

ERCIM News No. 27 - October 1996.

The ERCIM News is available in paper copy as well. An order form
is available at the above location.

6 ARL Announces: Transforming Libraries (fwd)


October 25, 1996

ARL Announces...
...OMS Introduces New Publication Series - Transforming Libraries


The ARL Office of Management Services (OMS) Systems and
Procedures Exchange Center has launched a new publication series,
Transforming Libraries. This series will focus on how libraries are
using technology to transform library services and operations. Each
issue will address how institutions and individuals are pioneering in a
particular subject and report on that area. The first issue of
Transforming Libraries is Issues & Innovations in Electronic Reserves.
George Soete, is the Transforming Libraries Editor, and for the
electronic reserves issue, Jeff Rosedale, Head, Access and Technical
Support, Lehman/Social Work Library at Columbia University, served as
Editorial Advisor.

Unlike other ARL/OMS publications, Transforming Libraries will
take a reportorial approach to its topics, seeking out libraries that
are trying new applications of technology and highlighting their
experiences while they are still innovative. The Systems and Procedures
Exchange Center (SPEC) will also develop a web based resource center to
accompany each issue of Transforming Libraries. This important feature
will allow continued learning on each topic. Each site will be managed
by the Editorial Advisor, and will include additional documentation on
the topic, updates, and links to related sites. Both print and
electronic versions are designed to work in tandem to provide as much
current information as possible about each subject.

The evolution of electronic reserves systems in libraries
epitomizes the triumph of technology over the barriers of time and
space. This publication highlights some of the innovative measures
being taken by libraries and product vendors in the area of electronic
reserves. Reports on electronic reserves systems at pioneering
institutions such as San Diego Sate University, Duke University Library,
and Northwestern University Library are included. Showcased also, are
collaborative efforts such a project with Marist College and IBM where a
model electronic reserve system is under development. Additionally,
issues associated with the development of electronic reserves systems
are addressed:

* Will the library continue to manage all electronic reserve operations?

* What access restrictions will be implemented?

* How will copyright be handled?

* What will it cost?

Transforming Libraries will be issued as a sub-series of the OMS
SPEC Kit and will also be available for sale on an individual basis.
OMS plans to publish four issues per year. Future topics under
consideration for this series include: distance education, geographic
information systems (GIS), and licensing electronic resources.

The Office of Management Services has served the library
community for over twenty-five years with programs and publications
geared toward improving performance in library management. The Systems
and Procedures Exchange Center was established in 1973 to identify
expertise and encourage its exchange among library staff through and
on-going survey and review process. Originally established as an
information source for ARL member libraries, the SPEC program has grown
to serve the needs of the library community world wide.

For further information please contact:
Laura Rounds
OMS Program Officer for Information Services

Transforming Libraries: Issues & Innovations in Electronic Reserves
32pp. $28. ISSN 0160-3582. 1996
SPEC subscribers automatically receive copies of Transforming Libraries.
Order Information is available from ARL publications (

| ARL-Announce
| ARL Announce is a no-fee electronic service from ARL that provides updates
| on Association activities, member news, project updates, and other reports
| of interest to those in the library and educational communities.
| To Subscribe, send a message to <>. The text of your
| message should read: "subscribe arl-announce [your name].
| For additional information contact:
| Patricia Brennan
| Information Services Coordinator 202/296-2296 phone
| Association of Research Libraries 202/872-0884 fax
| 21 Dupont Circle
| Washington, DC 20036

7. Journal of Internet Cataloging

(posted: <owner-sts-l@UTKVM1.UTK.EDU>
Date: Sat, 2 Nov 1996 14:58:32 -0500
Sender: "STS-L (Science and Technology Section, ACRL)"

News Items for _Journal of Internet Cataloging_

Recently, I was appointed the news column contributing editor
for the _Journal of Internet Cataloging: The International
Quarterly of Digital Organization, Classification, and Access_, a
new Haworth journal co-edited by Ruth Carter, the University of
Pittsburgh and Roger Brisson of Penn State University. The _Journal
of Internet Cataloging_ (JIC) focuses on the organization, access,
and bibliographic control of Internet resources. JIC views the
cataloging and classification of Net/Web resources broadly,
recognizing that the digital environment provides both
opportunities for the use of traditional and conventional methods,
and the development and application of novel approaches for digital

The URL for JIC is:

For a forthcoming issue of the _Journal of Internet
Cataloging_ (JIC), I am interested in profiling significant
activities within the library community related to digital
organization, classification and access. Among the categories of
news items of particular interest are:

* Abstracts or brief reports of on-going or
unpublished research

* Recent or future Web, Net or Digital meetings,
conferences, symposia ; Call for Papers

* Analysis or description of emerging technologies

I would also appreciate any other items that individuals
consider newsworthy for inclusion in this professional journal.

As always, any and all suggestions, recommendations, or
candidates will be very much appreciated.

While news items are welcome any time, I'd very much appreciate
receiving items for inclusion in the next issue of JIC by

November 13

Gerry McKiernan
Coordinator, Science and Technology Section
Reference and Instructional Services Department
Iowa State University
Ames IA 50011

"Save the Time of the User"

8. New Review Journal

(posted: <owner-ifla-l@INFOSERV.NLC-BNC.CA>
Approved-By: lld@ITS.NLC-BNC.CA
Date: Tue, 5 Nov 1996 23:52:19 -0500)


1716 SW Williston Road
Gainesville, FL 32608-4049
Telephone: 352 / 335-2200


Contact: Charles Willett, co-coordinator, AIP Task Force, and editor,

New Alternative Review Journal: Counterpoise

In January 1997 the Alternatives in Print Task Force of the American
Library Association's
Social Responsibilities Round Table (SRRT) will publish the first issue of
Counterpoise: For Social
Responsibilities, Liberty and Dissent. As a counterbalance to corporate
and governmental bias, this
international journal will review significant works ignored or slighted by
other review journals.

English-language books, periodicals and non-print materials in all
subjects published in 1995
or later worldwide are accepted. Twenty-one librarians and editors of
alternative periodicals in the
U.S.A., the UK, Australia and South Africa have volunteered unpaid as
associate editors. Dozens
of subject specialists are writing reviews.

The founder and editor of Counterpoise is Charles Willett, who
worked in acquisitions and
collection development at university libraries for 17 years and then in
bookselling, editing and
publishing. Before becoming a librarian he fought in the Korean War and
spent seven years in
Europe with the U.S. Foreign Service. A past president of the ACLU of
Florida, he has organized
and staffed a booth at every ALA conference since 1991 to market
alternative materials.

Not easy to define, the alternative press (which the Library of
Congress still calls the
"underground press") is a subset of the small press (which LC calls the
"little press"). One criterion
is that the publisher be noncommercial, more concerned with communicating
ideas than making
money. A title reviewed in Counterpoise may take any form: poetry or
prose, magazine or book,
video or zine. Its quality must set it apart. Somehow it should develop a
sense of human rights and
liberties, or oppose authoritarian values, or promote social
responsibility. Forthright works from
commercial and university presses can be alternative. The content is what
matters, not the package.

Counterpoise is supported by a small allocation from the Social
Responsibilities Round Table
and by donations, subscriptions and advertising. It is subject to
copyright by the American Library
Association but may be photocopied for noncommercial educational or
scientific advancement.

Publishers: Send two copies of each review title.

Subscriptions: Published quarterly. USA: Institutions: $35/year.
Individuals: $25/year. Students,
retired people: $15/year. FOREIGN: Surface mail: add $5/year. Airmail:
add $15/year.
Prepayment in full (U.S. dollars drawn on a U.S. bank, or international
postal money order).

Editorial and business office: 1716 SW Williston Road, Gainesville, FL
32608-4049 U.S.A.

Al Kagan
Africana Unit
328 Library
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801, USA

tel. 217-333-6519
fax. 217-333-2214

9 InterNIC News, Vol.1 Issue 8, Nov 1996
(posted: <owner-govdoc-l%PSUVM.BITNET@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU>
Date: Thu, 7 Nov 1996 14:07:35 -0600)

The November issue of InterNIC News is available at the URL:

In this issue we include a look at root name server statistics, including
sustained query rate and query types ("What's In A Name?" column).

InterNIC News
November 1996
Volume 1, Issue 8

* Calendar of Events

* From the Editor

* Examining the Future, Clebrating the Past: EDUCOM '96

* Net-Day '96: Connecting Schools to the Internet

* Netiquette 101

* What's in a Name
A Graphical Look at Registration Information

* End-User's Corner
The Internet: Window to the World or Hall of Mirrors?

* The 15 Minute Series - UPDATE
For the latest modules, feedback, and FAQs on the 15 Minute Series

* Performance Measures
InterNIC Statistics for August and September 1996

Robin Murphy
Assistant NIC Liaison
+1 703 736 0177


(posted: <>
Date: Thu, 14 Nov 1996 16:55:01 -0500)

Journal of the American Society for Information Science (JASIS)

Bert R. Boyce

A. Bookstein
Records of circulation history have obvious value for research and
management and retrieval effectiveness. Bookstein shows that information on
usage counts and linkages between patrons and items can be retained and
utilized while maintaining confidentiality. If one links the patron ID file
with the historical use data by using a transforming function which
computes easily from patron to circulation data, but not easily from use
data to patron identity, some degree of security is maintained.
A retrieval system based on circulation data would be required to return
those other items checked out by the patrons who had checked out some
percentage of the items on a query list. Both direct matching and a
weighted vector model are analyzed to show that efficiency and patron
privacy can both be maintained.

Labeled, Typed Links as Cues when Reading Hypertext Documents
Lisa Baron, Jean Tague-Sutcliffe, Mark T. Kinnucan, and Tom Carey
A hypertext link may be organizational in the sense that its purpose is to
indicate the structure of the document as organized for presentation.
Baron, Tague-Sutcliffe, Kinnucan, and Carey test three classes of other
than organizational links. Semantic links represent associations among
words. Rhetorical links are used to create a path which will convince or
educate a reader. Pragmatic links express a relation between a text and
its possible use.
Subjects in a browsing task were tested on content assimilation, and
surveyed as to attitude toward the system. In the querying task subjects
were asked a series of data specific questions using the system while
accuracy, time and number of screens viewed were recorded.
Labeling reduced the use of semantic links but had little effect on the use
of rhetoric or pragmatic links. No significant learning change was
indicated by the use of labels in the browsing task. Labels lead to
significantly higher scores in the querying task. Attitudes did not vary in
the browsing task, and overall impressions did not vary in the querying
task. However, participants without labels found it more difficult to move
between topics, and those with labels felt more comfortable moving
sequentially through the file than did those without, even though they did
not use this technique more than others.

Experiments with a Stemming Algorithm for Malay Words
Fatimah Ahmad, Mohammed Yusoff, and Tengku M. T. Sembok
Past work on stemming algorithms has concentrated on the removal of
suffixes. Ahmad, Yusoff, and Sembok point out that in languages like Malay
or Arabic variant formation depends on prefixes as well as suffixes.
Othman's algorithm uses 121 morphological rules and a large Malay
dictionary which is a necessary supplement to avoid high error rates in
stemming Malay words. After increasing the number of rules in the set to
432 (or 561 for modern derivatives), both an initial dictionary scan and
the use of prefix rules improve stemming performance.

The Effectiveness of the Electronic City Metaphor for Organizing the Menus
of Free-Nets
Elaine G. Toms and Mark T. Kinnucan
In free-nets community resources are often accessed via a menu using the
names of fictitious buildings as entry points. Predicting that a everyday
language menu would be easier for the average user, Toms and Kinnucan test
this sort of menu against an electronic city metaphor menu. The number of
top level menu choices was significantly lower (better) for the nonmetaphor
menu and this group showed significantly improved results in the second
test. The nonmetaphor group also improved in terms of number of correct
answers in the second test. No significant time differences were apparent.
In response to preference questions over 90% found the nonmetaphor menu
easier to understand.

The Modern Language Association: Electronic and Paper Surveys of
Computer-Based Tool Use
Debora Shaw and Charles H. Davis
The Shaw and Davis survey indicates that the members of the Modern
Language Association are rapidly increasing their use of computer based
productivity tools. They are likely to have personal computers in their
homes, if not in their workplace, and to be users of word processing
software, electronic mail and remote access searching of bibliographic
databases and catalogs. The sample was equally divided between a paper and
electronic mail survey. There are significant differences in several of the
responses of the two subgroups indicating that reliance solely on
electronic survey instruments may be misleading.

The Contributions of Organizational Science to the Development of Decision
Support Systems Research Subspecialties
Sean B. Eom and Roy S. Farris
Using three previous bibliographies of the Decision Support System
literature, a database of citing papers was assembled by Eom and Farris. An
author cocitation matrix was then constructed and a factor analysis yielded
nine factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 and accounting for 85% of the
variance. A clustering procedure gave additional input for interpretation,
and Multidimensional Scaling provides a picture of the relative position of
author clusters to one another.

The Internet Compendium: Subject Guides to Health and Science Resources, by
Louis Rosenfeld, Joseph Janes, and Martha Vander Kolk
J. R. Jackson

Computerization and Controversy: Value Conflicts and Social Choices
(2nd Ed.), edited by Rob Kling
Thomas A. Peters

Educational Services in Health Sciences Libraries. Volume 2: Current
Practice in Health Sciences Librarianship, edited by Francesca Allegri
Linda S. Bixler



Richard Hill
Executive Director, American Society for Information Science
8720 Georgia Avenue, Suite 501
Silver Spring, MD 20910
FAX: (301) 495-0810
Voice: (301) 495-0900


JASIS February TOC

(posted: <>
Date: Wed, 22 Jan 1997 09:55:34 -0500)

JASIS (Journal of the American Society for Information Science)


Bert R. Boyce

Extending Theory for User-Centered Information Services: Diagnosing and
Learning from Error in Complex Statistical Data
Alice Robbin and Lee Frost-Kumpf
According to Robbin and Frost-Kumpf, data production and utilization are
best understood as social processes. Error is socially produced in data
production and use and will always be present to some degree. Information
can be organized to inform the researcher on how to avoid error. To design
modern information systems that will reduce error, each system should
incorporate a permanent repository of conversations about error. Systems
should include their rules for data production and use and use prototyping.

Integrating Structured Data and Text: A Relational Approach
David A. Grossman, Ophir Frieder, David O. Holmes, and David C. Roberts
Grossman et al. demonstrate that standard relational database software can
be used for information retrieval purposes where unstructured text and
structured fields may be mixed in SQL queries to provide Boolean,
proximity, and weighted ranked searches. By using only the least frequently
occurring terms across the collection in queries by sorting and taking a
controlled percentage of the original query set, performance is improved.
The SQL server outperforms Lotus Notes below a 50% query term reduction
threshold. The storage size required for the SQL server files is
considerably larger.

Evaluation of Search Results: A New Approach
Vladimir G. Voiskunskii
Voiskunskii believes that no single value measure is justified
pragmatically for the evaluation of search results in all circumstances.
Practically we see that the square root of the product of precision and
recall is an acceptable measure for contemporary retrieval systems. The use
of the easily obtained square of the number of relevant documents in the
retrieved set divided by the number of the documents in the retrieved set
provides an adequate substitute in the sense that, with both measures, the
order of the rankings is unaffected by the number of relevant documents.

Comparing Boolean and Probabilistic Information Retrieval Systems across
Queries and Disciplines
Robert M. Losee
A general model for performance prediction of Boolean and Probabilistic
retrieval systems is presented by Losee which could suggest the most likely
search system in a situation where choices are available. The model
indicates that accounting for term dependence, rather than assuming
independence, will positively affect performance. Situations based upon
individual and joint term probabilities can produce an indication of which
Boolean operator would be most effective and whether a Probabilistic search
might improve performance.

A Graphical, Self-Organizing Approach to Classifying Electronic Meeting Output
Richard E. Orwig, Hsinchun Chen, and Jay F. Nunamaker, Jr.
Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is a neural network where random number
mapping nodes are compared with input nodes to identify the smallest
Euclidean distance between the mapping and input vectors. Orwig, Chen, and
Nunamaker adjust the smallest distance vector to reduce the distance to all
neighboring nodes, and repeat the process until the input nodes are
exhausted and a clustering has taken place. Training inputs were used to
form classes that then group the messages in an electronic meeting system
where group members exchange ideas in order to address a problem. The
method organizes more quickly than would a human facilitator, but less so
than a Hopfield algorithm.
No significant difference was found in recall performance, but the human
facilitator list outperformed the Kohonen list in precision. Both human and
Kohonen outscored Hopfield on term association capability. Considering the
reduced time and effort using Kohonen, it appears as a viable option.

Science-Technology Coupling: The Case of Mathematical Logic and Computer
Roland Wagner-Döbler
Wagner-Döbler compared a bibliography of mathematical logic from 1874 to
1990 with references from the first 37 volumes of the Journal of the ACM.
Over 15% of the references were present. One hundred papers in the JACM
were also in the bibliography indicating the presence of hybrid scholars.
The logic code from Mathematical Reviews occurs most often on the same
document as computer science. A considerable time lag (over 48 years)
occurs between publication in the logic literature and citation in the JACM.

Describing Technological Paradigm Transitions: A Methodological Exploration
Danny P. Wallace and Connie Van Fleet
Wallace and Van Fleet have finally provided a clear explanation of what is
meant by nonquantitative research, and a description of a methodology for
those who find historical and ethnographic methods as overly restrictive as
those endorsed a century ago by a researcher whose notoriety without doubt
is due to his unreasonable views on methodology. ``When you can measure
what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something
about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in
numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be
the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts,
advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be''--Lord
Kelvin, Popular Lectures and Addresses (1889---1894) Vol. 1, p. 73.
The Sessio Taurino is a method for the rest of us.

Top: Rolodex index cards, a more primitive (however handy) form of data
storage and retrieval. Bottom: Art Resource, NY. Scroll showing the family
tree of Scottish kings and queens and their descendants. 14th century
British Library, London, UK. A ``tree'' is used as a metaphor for seeking
information. Who came first and who is related to whom--the tree takes us
backward and forward in time.--Adrienne Weiss, Designer

Richard Hill
Executive Director, American Society for Information Science
8720 Georgia Avenue, Suite 501
Silver Spring, MD 20910
FAX: (301) 495-0810
Voice: (301) 495-0900

JASIS March Table of Contents

(posted: <>
Date: Tue, 25 Feb 1997 08:26:49 -0500)

Journal of the American Society
for Information Science


Bert R. Boyce

Supporting Discovery in Virtual Libraries
Bipin C. Desai
Desai's work is a description of a problem and the outline of a solution
that will be of interest to serious Internet users.
Fragmented, incomplete, and less than compatible indexing tools for the
Internet argue for a holistic approach to information discovery on the
emerging information infrastructure. Current index generation systems are
either manual, robot generated, or some combination of the two, and lead to
highly variable results with the only consistency being a high number of
items missed.

Data Set Isolation for Bibliometric Online Analyses of Research
Publications: Fundamental Methodological Issues
Peter Ingwersen and Finn Hjortgaard Christensen
The metadata required for an adequate discovery system on the Internet
include a standard index structure with standardized definitions and a
facility for revision as sources change over time. A standard, easy-to-use
software facility for information providers should allow provision of the
needed information to distributed and replicated database servers. The
Dublin Metadata Element List, DMEL, is described, and a graphical user
interface for its application is suggested.
Ingwersen and Christensen point out that for comprehensive bibliometric
studies using online databases, cross file searching, database clustering,
and duplicate removal are required features. It must also be possible to
tune the retrieved set. The changing of the order of the files in the
duplicate removal process will result in a different distribution of
retained documents across the databases. One would desire to retain the
most documents in files that had the desired searchable features (fields,
search term breadth, phrase, or word by word indexing in the fields of
interest, or name authority control). This likely means forming all overlap
sets and examining them for desired characteristics prior to any ranking

End-User Searching Behavior in Information Retrieval: A Longitudinal Study
Weijing Yuan
Weijing Yuan investigates the effect of experience on the detailed use of
search system protocols by law students using QUICKLAW over a period of 12
months. Mean number of commands and features used increased with
experience. Use of phrases increased with experience, use of Boolean
operators decreased as did the use of invalid commands. Search speed and
use of field qualification seems to increase with experience. Attitude
toward the system is unchanged with experience. No other pattern of change
was detected. Dictionary and saved set features were rarely used.
Confirming the useable terminology was uncommon, and building block
strategies were rarely used. Truncation was used, but other word features
were not. Large amounts of time were spent browsing and viewing results.

Ranking Schemes in Hybrid Boolean Systems: A New Approach
Jacques Savoy
Using average precision values over standard recall points, Savoy
investigates the improvements that can be made by processing the retrieved
set from a Boolean search using existing other than Boolean retrieval
models to rank these results. There appear to be meaningful improvements,
and in the process a good review of current retrieval models is provided.

A Discipline Independent Definition of Information
Robert M. Losee
Losee presents a general definition of information as being the values
currently attached to characteristics in the output of a process. The
output of a process is information about that process and its inputs and
only in that context. The thought is that layers of communication processes
occur, and that they accept input from other layers and produce output for
other layers in a process called representation. Processes may be studied
at any level, but movement between layers may result in lost information.
The conceptual framework would appear to allow consideration of most
existing ideas about information and could provide a commonality of approach.

Decision Support for Serials Deselection and Acquisition: A Case Study
David J. Robb and Angela McCormick
Robb and McCormick report a classic journal deselection project based on
cost benefit analysis. Benefit is defined by a weighted sum of use,
relevance, and availability factors collected locally. Of 670 journals, 206
were deselected but no study of faculty satisfaction is reported.

Citation Content Analysis of a Botany Journal
M. H. MacRoberts and B. R. MacRoberts
Replicating their earlier work in a journal on genetics which indicated
that only 30% of influences evident in text are reflected in a paper's
references, the text of an issue of Sida was studied by the MacRoberts to
extract influences of previous work evident therein. Influences they judged
present in the text appeared in the references only 29% of the time.

Electronic Publishing and Libraries. Planning for the Impact and Growth to
2003, by David J. Brown
Mary E. Brown

Civilizing Cyberspace: Policy, Power, and the Information Superhighway, by
Steven E. Miller
Donald Case

The Scholar's Courtesy: The Role of Acknowledgement in the Primary
Communication Process, by Blaise Cronin
Betsy Van der Veer Martens

Digital Image and Audio Communications: Toward a Global Information
Infrastructure, by Stanley N. Baron and Mark I. Krivocheev
Ruth Wuest

Design of Library Automation Systems: File Structure, Data Structures, and
Tools, by Michael D. Cooper
Carol A. Hert

Explorations in Indexing and Abstracting: Pointing, Virtue, and Power, by
Brian C. O'Connor
Frank Exner, Little Bear

Cover: Is a column of text at all like an architectural column? Is the
phone book like a map broken up into names and numbers instead of shapes
and colors? What does form tell us about information--Adrienne Weiss, Designer
Richard Hill
Executive Director, American Society for Information Science
8720 Georgia Avenue, Suite 501
Silver Spring, MD 20910
FAX: (301) 495-0810
Voice: (301) 495-0900


(posted: <>
Date: Wed, 12 Mar 1997 15:57:29 -0500)

APRIL 1997



Michael Buckland and Trudi Bellardo Hahn

The Origins of Information Science and the International Institute of
Bibliography/International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID)
W. Boyd Rayward

P. Otlet's Mundaneum and the International Perspective in the History of
Documentation and Information Science
Isabelle Rieusset-Lemarié

Paul Otlet's Book and the Writing of Social Space
Ron Day

The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes
Bella Hass Weinberg

The Universal Decimal Classification: Some Factors Concerning Its Origins,
Development, and Influence
I. C. McIlwaine

Origins of Coordinate Searching
Frederick G. Kilgour

Chemical Abstracts Service Chemical Registry System: History, Scope, and
David W. Weisgerber

Journal of Documentary Reproduction, 1938---1942: Domain as Reflected in
Characteristics of Authorship and Citation
Thomas D. Walker

History of Information Science in Spain: A Selected Bibliography
Félix Sagredo Fernández and Antonia García Moreno

Bibliography of the History of Information Science in North America,
Robert V. Williams, Laird Whitmire, and Colleen Bradley

A cornucopia from the history of Information Science: Stonchenge, Rolodex
cards, old fashioned pen and paper scribbles, ``high'' tech visualization
graphics. 9th Century Manuscript, Biblioteca Nazionale, Turin, Italy.
Decretum di Graziano, Vatican Museum, Rome, Italy. (Manuscripts courtesy of
Art Resource, N.Y.)--Adrienne Weiss, Designer

Richard Hill
Executive Director, American Society for Information Science
8720 Georgia Avenue, Suite 501
Silver Spring, MD 20910
FAX: (301) 495-0810
Voice: (301) 495-0900


11 The Information Society 12(3) ToC

(posted: <>
Date: Fri, 14 Feb 1997 19:03:45 -0500)

The Information Society
Letter from Rob Kling
For TIS Issue 12(3)

This issue of The Information Society, 12(3), include articles
about NII policies in Taiwan and the cultural construction of NII
developments in Japan. It also includes an article that focusss on
the social conditions under which people elect not to have home
telephones. Associate Editor Mark Poster has organized a
Forum that examines the controversial position paper,
"Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the
Knowledge Age" by Esther Dyson, George Gilder, George
Keyworth, and Alvin Toffler

The issue opens with Joel West s "Utopianism and National
Competitiveness in Technology Rhetoric: The Case of Japan s
Information Infrastructure." He notes that technological
utopianism and national competitiveness are two common
rhetorics that inform technology policy in developed nations.
Both are strategies that can and have been used to sell
technology policies to the government, industry and public at
large. He examines the role of these rhetorics in shaping the
emergence of the "multimedia"/information infrastructure
boomlet in Japan in the mid 1990 s, and in the context of the
country s history and institutions. The phrase J h -Ka - usually
translated as "informatization" and denoting a change to an
information-oriented society (j h shakai) -- has been a slogan
of Japanese government policy for more than two decades. It is
generally associated with two threads - the abstract concept of
Japan as an information society, and a shift in government
industrial policy away from heavy industries in the late 1960 s
and early 1970 s. West argues that Japan s recent NII efforts
blossomed not because of a maturation of the earlier j h
shakai vision, but as a direct reaction to highly publiczed 1993
U.S. plans for "information superhighways."

The second article for this isssue examines Taiwan's
information technology industry ("Entrepreneurship, Flexibility
and Policy Coordination: Taiwan's Information Technology
Industry," by Kenneth L. Kraemer, Jason Dedrick, Chin- Yeong
Hwang, Tze-Chen Tu and Chee-Sing Yap.) In just fifteen
years, Taiwan has emerged as a leading producer of hardware
for nearly every major computer vendor in the world, despite
little previous experience in high-technology industries. By
1995, Taiwan ranked fourth in the world in computer hardware
production and exports through its strategy of being a fast
follower. Kraemer and his colleagues examine how Taiwan's
success in the computer industry has been due to a coordinated
government strategy to support private entrepreneurship by a
large number of small, flexible, innovative companies. They
believe that Taiwan's computer companies have responded
rapidly and effectively to continuing changes in the international
market and avoided many of the problems encountered by their
counterparts in Japan and South Korea in recent years by
emphasizing close supplier relationships with multinational
computer companies all over the world. They also examine the
role of government agencies in collecting and disseminating
market intelligence. They suggest that Taiwan is Asia's best
positioned country for continued success in the global computer

In the third article, Milton Mueller and Jorge Schement report
why some (poor) people avoid having telephones at home, even
when they have other information services, such as cable TV.
Mueller and Schement's findings are especially important in
assessments of "basic communications services" and "universal
access" since their data counter the conventional assumptions
that people acquire telephone services before the subscribe to
cable television, and which, in turn, is more basic than computer

This issue also includes a Forum, organized by TIS's Associate
Editor Mark Poster, that examines the regulation of commerce
on the Internet. The Forum includes the controversial position
paper, "Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta
for the Knowledge Age" that was published on-line by Esther
Dyson, George Gilder, George Keyworth, and Alvin Toffler in
August 1994 (

"The dominant form of new knowledge in the Third Wave is
perishable, transient, customized knowledge: The right
information, combined with the right software and presentation,
at precisely the right time. Unlike the mass knowledge of the
Second Wave -- "public good" knowledge that was useful to
everyone because most people's information needs were
standardized -- Third Wave customized knowledge is by nature
a private good .... If this analysis is correct, copyright and patent
protection of knowledge (or at least many forms of it) may no
longer be unnecessary. In fact, the marketplace may already be
creating vehicles to compensate creators of customized
knowledge outside the cumbersome copyright/patent process,

And all of those confront a set of constituencies made frightened
and defensive by their mainly Second Wave habits and locales:
Command-and-control regulators, elected officials, political
opinion-molders, philosophers mired in materialism, traditional
interest groups, some broadcasters and newspapers -- and every
major institution (including corporations) that believes its
future is best served by preserving the past.

TIS 12(3) concludes with reviews of five books:

Democracy and Technology, by Richard Sclove. Reviewed by
Steven K. Wyman;
The Future Does Not Compute: Transcending the Machines in
our Midst, by Stephen L. Talbott. Three reviews by Kevin
Hunt, James Dalziel and William Bainbridge;
Information Superhighways: Multimedia Users and Futures
edited by S.J. Emmott. Reviewed by Andrew Dillon;
City of Bits: Space Place and the Infobahn," by William
Mitchell. Reviewed by Linda Wall;
Resisting the Virtual Life," edited by James Brooks and Ian
Boal. Reviewed by Karen Ruhleder:

A description of the next issues 12(4) and 13(1) are posted on
TIS's web page: (see

Issue of The Information Society, 12(4), includes articles about
electronic media and universities, the politics of computer
networking, privacy in telephone listings, and regional plans for
major information infrastructure initiatives, as well as a Forum
and two book reviews. Issue 13(1) of The Information Society,
13(1) focusses on electronic commerce.


TABLE of CONTENTS: The Information Society 12(3)

Letter from the Editor-in-Chief

"Utopianism and National Competitiveness in Technology
Rhetoric: The Case of Japan s Information Infrastructure,"
by Joel West

"Entrepreneurship, Flexibility and Policy Coordination:
Taiwan's Information Technology Industry," by Kenneth
L. Kraemer, Jason Dedrick, Chin- Yeong Hwang,
Tze-Chen Tu and Chee-Sing Yap

"Universal Service from the Bottom Up: A study of telephone
penetration in Camden, New Jersey," by Milton Mueller
and Jorge Reina Schement

"Controlling Access: Demographic Characteristics of
Unlisted/Nonpublished Subscribers," by James E. Katz

"American hegemony in packaged software trade and the
"culture of software," by Erran Carmel

Forum on the Magna Carta

"Introduction," by Mark Poster

"Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for
the Knowledge Age," by Esther Dyson, George Gilder,
George Keyworth and Alvin Toffler

Cybercowboys on the New Frontier: Freedom,
Nationalism, and Imperialism in the Postmodern Era,"
by John Carlos Rowe

"Cyberspace Inc. and the Robber Baron Age: An Analysis
of PFF s "Magna Carta," by Richard Moore

Book Reviews:

Reviewed by Kevin Hunt: "The Future Does Not Compute:
Transcending the Machines in our Midst," by Stephen L.

Reviewed by James Dalziel: "The Future Does Not Compute:
Transcending the Machines in our Midst," by Stephen L.

Reviewed by William Bainbridge: "The Future Does Not
Compute: Transcending the Machines in our Midst," by
Stephen L. Talbott.

Reviewed by Steven K. Wyman: "Democracy and
Technology, " by Richard Sclove.

Reviewed by Andrew Dillon: "Information Superhighways:
Multimedia Users and Futures,"
edited by S.J. Emmott.

Reviewed by Karen Ruhleder: "Resisting the Virtual Life,"
edited by James Brooks and Ian Boal.

Reviewed by Linda Wall: "City of Bits: Space Place and the
Infobahn," by William Mitchell
Rob Kling
The Information Society (journal)
Center for Social Informatics
Indiana University
10th & Jordan, Room 005C
Bloomington, IN 47405-1801 812-855-9763 // Fax: 855-6166

Read & contribute to the ....
Social Informatics Home Page -->
a resource about research, teaching, conferences & journals

The Information Society 12(4) ToC

(posted: <>
Date: Wed, 26 Mar 1997 20:28:20 -0500)

The Information Society
Letter from Rob Kling
For TIS Issue 12(4) (Oct-Dec, 1996)

This issue of The Information Society, 12(4), includes articles
about electronic media and universities, the politics of computer
networking, privacy in telephone listings, and regional plans for
major information infrastructure initiatives, as well as a Forum
and two book reviews.

The issue opens with "The Virtual College: Computer-Mediated
Communication and Scientific Work," by John Walsh and Todd
Bayma. Walsh and Bayma interviewed 67 mathematicians,
physicists, chemists and biologists to learn about the roles of
CMC in their research. They report evidence that CMC supports
important scientific collaborations, helps establish new
collaborations, and helps scientists who are in less central
positions to maintain more effective collaborations when they
have access to CMC. In addition they note important variations
in the ways that scientists collaborate in different disciplines.

The word "collaboration" invokes images of pleasant
cooperation, although some collaborations are periodically
stormy. One of my colleagues reports that his most stimulating
co-author and he periodically slammed doors at each other when
they were working together. Bryan Pfaffenberger reports about
similarly stormy complications of large scale collaboration
when effort of hundreds of system designers and administrators
to develop and maintain a major set of network services -- the
Usenet newsgroups. In "If I Want it, It s OK: Usenet and the
(Outer) Limits of Free Speech," Pfaffenberger examines some
pivotal events in Usenet's history -- from a small technically
focussed discussion group in 1979 to a service that now
connects about 7 million people though 20,000 topical
discussion groups. Usenet's initiators and maintainers have
created a libertarian culture of almost-anything-goes free
speech. But there were periodic and often hostile disputes about
the limits of free speech on-line. Pfaffenberger reports these
stormy controversies in which two computerization movements
struggled for control of Usenet's guiding policies via debates in
an electronic medium. In addition to vividly reporting an
important social history of "the net," Pfaffenberger also uses
Usenet's history to critique a major theoretical position about
the social construction of technologies.

Advocates of free speech policies for Usenet often anchored
their arguments in their beliefs about the roles of speech in
political democracies. In "Engendering Democratic
Participation via the Net," Nancy Kurland and Terri Egan
examine five assumptions that undergird the claim that
electronic forums will enhance democratic participation. They
show how increased democratic participation on computer
networks rests on three fundamental characteristics: equal
access of stakeholders to leaders and government, voice with
respect to policy creation and implementation, and repeated,
reflective exchange or dialogue in exploring social concerns.
They argue that educational, economic, and cultural barriers to
access, voice, and dialogue must be overcome for electronic
forums to effectively facilitate democratic participation. Their
article advances our understanding about the ways that social
structures on-line and off-line play pivotal roles in influencing
the possibility of electronic forums serving as democratizing

Many people are interested in using telephones to give them a
voice in their daily lives, but also want to limit who has access
to them. In "Controlling Access" James Katz examines the
demographic characteristics of people who subscribe to
unlisted/nonpublished telephone services in the United States. In
one of the few studies with national samples, he examines a
wide variety of demographic characteristics, including those that
many believe would be most characteristic of having an unlisted
telephone number, such as being female or having a high
income. In contrast, he finds that being an African-American,
not owning a home, metropolitan residence, lower income,
lower education and living in a multifamily dwelling are the
strongest correlates, in order of importance, of having an
unlisted telephone number. Katz discusses the social aspects of
subscribing to these services and proposes some new services
that have similar social properties without the rigidities of
unlisting numbers.

Since the late 1980s some regional U.S. telephone companies
have been seeking reduced regulation in exchange for enhancing
a region's telecommunications infrastructure. In "Regulatory
Reform and the Promise of New Telecommunications
Infrastructure in New Jersey" Jan Youtie and William Read
examine the politics of a particular plan -- Opportunity New
Jersey -- to deploy advanced telecommunications to all homes
and businesses in that state in 20 years. Youtie and Read
examine the evidence marshalled by the plan's promoters in
light of a larger corpus of evidence about the state's economy,
business relocation decisions, the complexities of distance
learning, and the program's likely costs. They contend that the
evidence supporting the plan was very weak, and that it was
enacted into law based on its ideological appeals rather than the
evidentiary basis. Further, they argue that it will take over 20
years to effectively understand whether Opportunity New Jersey
was an opportunity worth making.

This issue's Forum section includes three short articles.

In "Short-term Memories: A Death in the Information Age,"
Professor Van Korenegay reports about giving a deceased
colleague's written work to his widow. This poignant moment
served as an opportunity for meditating on what traces people
leave behind in an era when their notes, books, and articles can
be passed along on a few diskettes.

In 1995, economist Eli Noam published an article in Science
about the ways that computer networking would soon erode
place-based universities and replace them with electronic
equivalents. Noam's article, "Electronics and the Dim Future of
the University" was photocopied and rapidly spread from
mailbox to mailbox. Those academics who cherished place-based universities and others who were comparably passionate
about virtual universities used the article to alert their colleagues
and raise their consciousness. In "The End of the University"
Majid Tehranian criticizes Noam for ignoring five major social
roles of universities. He argues that virtual universities cannot
effectively replace all of these social roles. Tehranian does not
simply defend the status quo; he also recommends that
universities revitalize themselves by better preparing students
for lifelong learning and to play a more systematic role in the
education of mid-career professionals and social leaders.

In the last forum article, "The Demise of Meaning-Making and
Social Agency as Critical Concepts in the Rhetoric of an
Information Age," Suzanne Iacono criticizes an intellectual shift
in the concepts used to characterize social life in this era. She
observes that "we develop theory and design new technologies
as if organizational groups were closed systems primarily intent
on becoming more efficient and effective information
processors rather than highlighting their roles as actors engaged
in struggle over the production of meaning with other groups
within and across their institutions." In this short essay she
offers some vivid illustrations to show how modeling groups
first and foremost as information processors misses the central
or critical element of how groups come to take on social
identities and enact meaning in their environments.

TIS 12(4) concludes with reviews of two books:
"In Search of the Virtual Class: Education in an
Information Society," by J. Tiffin and L.
Rajasingham. (Reviewed by Deborah Sprague.)

"The Dynamics of Service: Reflections on the Changing
Nature of Customer/Provider Interactions," by
Barbara Gutek. (Reviewed by George Ritzer.)

TIS 13(1) will be a special issue on Electronic Commerce and
was edited by Rolf Wigand of Syracuse University. Description
of subsequent issues will be posted on TIS's new Indiana
University web page as they jell (see

I am pleased to welcome two strong scholars to TIS's editorial
board: Dr. James Katz of Bellcore and Professor George
Trubow of the John Marshall Law School. In addition, Ms.
Anna Martinson and Ms. Dorothy Day have become TIS's book
review editors. I appreciate the help of TIS's previous book
review editors, Mr. Wayne Lutters and Dr. Lisa Covi in
significantly increasing the number of books that we review
each year tenfold! As part of TIS's move with me to Indiana
University, Ms. Carolyn Cheung has retired from TIS after
doing a superb job as managing editor and Mr. Kevin Bishop is
now playing that role here.

TABLE of CONTENTS: The Information Society 12(4)

Letter from the Editor-in-Chief

"The Virtual College: Computer-Mediated Communication and
Scientific Work," by John Walsh and Todd Bayma.

"If I Want it, It s OK: Usenet and the (Outer) Limits of Free
Speech," by Bryan Pfaffenberger

"Engendering Democratic Participation via the Net: Access,
Voice and Dialogue," by Nancy Kurland and Terri Egan

"Controlling Access: Demographic Characteristics of
Unlisted/Nonpublished Subscribers," by James E. Katz.

"Regulatory Reform and the Promise of New
Telecommunications Infrastructure in New Jersey" by Jan
L. Youtie and William Read


"Short-term memories: A death in the Information Age," by
Van Korenegay

"The End of University," by Majid Tehranian

"The Demise of Meaning-Making and Social Agency as Critical
Concepts in the Rhetoric of an Information Age," by
Suzanne Iacono

Book Reviews:

Reviewed by Deborah Sprague. "In Search of the Virtual
Class: Education in an Information Society," by J. Tiffin
and L. Rajasingham.

Reviewed by George Ritzer. "The Dynamics of Service:
Reflections on the Changing Nature of Customer/Provider
Interactions," by Barbara Gutek.

Rob Kling
The Information Society (journal)
Center for Social Informatics
Indiana University
10th & Jordan, Room 005C
Bloomington, IN 47405-1801 812-855-9763 // Fax: 855-6166

Read & contribute to the ....
Social Informatics Home Page -->
a resource about research, teaching, conferences & journals

12. Current Cites, Feb. 1997

(posted: <owner-sololib-l@LISTSERV.SILVERPLATTER.COM>
Date: Wed, 5 Mar 1997 13:47:47 -0400)

Here's the latest issue of Current Cites, reposted from PACS-L

_Current Cites_
Volume 8, no. 2
February 1997
The Library
University of California, Berkeley
Edited by Teri Andrews Rinne
ISSN: 1060-2356


Campbell Crabtree, Terry Huwe,
Margaret Phillips, David Rez, Richard Rinehart,
Teri Rinne, Roy Tennant

Electronic Publishing

Arms, William Y., Christophe Blanchi, and Edward A. Overly. "An
Architecture for Information in Digital Libraries" D-Lib Magazine
(February 1997) (
-- Although it may not seem like it at first, it is well worth trying
to understand such terms as "key metadata," "structural metadata,"
"digital object," and "meta-object" that pepper this article. Arms and
company describes a digital library architecture that is based on
previous projects (at least one of which still exists as a production
service) and work with the U.S. Library of Congress National Digital
Library Program, which is digitizing content at a rapid pace. The
architecture outlined here is an intriguing one, and it will be
interesting to see the prototype system promised for early 1997. But
while the article is long on detail in some areas (such as the use of
"handles" to handle persistent naming), it is quite short on other
details, like what metadata scheme they propose to use and in what
container they will store it. But nonetheless, anyone building or
thinking of building digital collections must be familiar with the
work described in this paper. -- RT

Ester, Michael. Digital Image Collections: Issues and Practice The
Commission on Preservation & Access, December 1996. -- In this brief
(36 pages) report, Ester distills a great deal of information and
discussion of issues relating to creating, organizing, and managing
digital image collections. Anyone faced with such a project would do
well to spend $15 and learn a lot about what is involved, as well as
being forewarned about a general lack of standards and rules of thumb
related to digital imaging. Major sections include discussions of the
original object and its reproduction, assessing image quality, color
matching, integrating image and text information, building
collections, reproduction rights, and user access. One disappointment
is the lack of any substantive discussion of the metadata issue --
what information is kept about each image and how. Despite this minor
point Ester has put together a quite useful document for those of us
still laboring under the misconception that one needs only slap a
photo on a scanner to start building a digital image collection. -- RT

Kirriemuir, John. "The Professional Web-zine and Parallel Publishing"
D-Lib Magazine (February 1997)
( --
This article, and a related one by John McColl, describes the
experiences of the editors of a magazine that is published in both
print and Web versions. The freely available Web version has all the
content of the print version, along with additional content not
available in print. This article provides some history regarding the
creation of this dual publishing model. Of particular note in this
piece is the interesting and frank discussion about how to make it
pay, from someone faced with making the transition from a grant-funded
project to the cold fiscal realities of the real world. -- RT

MacColl, John. "The Professional Magazine and Parallel Publishing"
D-Lib Magazine (February 1997)
( -- In this
companion piece to John Kirriemuir's article in the same issue of
D-Lib Magazine, MacColl waxes more philosophic than his compatriot in
looking at the issues behind the parallel publication of a journal in
both print and Web versions. He contends that parallel publishing, at
least for the type of professional literature of which Ariadne is a
part, is likely to be a useful publication model for some time into
the future. -- RT

Multimedia and Hypermedia

Sauer, Jeff. "New Tools Give QuickTime Muscle" New Media 7(1) (January
6, 1997):71-74. -- This is a bit of a hands-on article, and not very
theoretical, but it should prove very useful to all those who made an
investment in putting their digital video content into the QuickTime
format, and now want to make that content available on the web without
the expense of a server-side option for web-video. -- RR

Networks and Networking

Cortese, Amy. "A Way Out of the Web Maze" Businessweek (3515)
(February 24, 1997):95-108.
( Special Report. --
Suddenly everyone is reporting on rapidly emerging "push"
technologies, and Businessweek is no exception. The "push"
technologies are, simply put, new services that learn what you want to
receive via the Web and bring it to your desktop. Instead of
struggling with links, URLs, and "no DNS entry" messages, push
technologies do the searching for you. Corporate firms use push
technologies (also known as "webcasting") to bring news and
information to employee desktops. Both Microsoft and Netscape are
working on products that would provide "channels" on a personal
computer that would allow custom configurations and "productivity"
services (such as spreadsheets or word processors) on demand. Push
technology is estimated to grab up to one third of Internet
advertising revenue by the year 2000. This article provides a handy
overview of the key players (ranging from Berkeley Systems to
Microsoft), as well as likely development trends. -- TH

Guernsey, Lisa. "A Humanities Network Considers What Lies Beyond
E-mail: Debate at H-NET Reflects Ideas of Two Men Who Run the Popular
Project" Chronicle of Higher Education 43(20) (January 24, 1997):
A23-A24. -- H-NET, which won the American Historical Association's
award for contributions to the teaching of history, is a lively
community of over 51,000 humanities scholars. This article charts its
growth and future goals, which will increasingly involve Web
applications. Until now, the network has largely been a series of
email discussion lists. This is a relatively low-tech use of networked
communications, but clearly of interest and value to the participants
as a scholarly aid. The founders will retain a commitment to material
that can be accessible with slower machines and access times, in
recognition of the full range of technology available. -- TH

Hof, Robert D. "Netspeed at Netscape" Businessweek (3513) (February
10, 1997):78-86 []. --
This profile of working life at Netscape will be of interest to
librarians who are watching the development of Internet culture for
two reasons. First, it showcases the mindset and values (such as
speed, speed, speed in development cycles) that have helped Netscape
keep an edge on Microsoft. Second, it reveals how Netscape developers
and marketers have combined an understanding of desktop ease-of-use
with new ways handling "content." Fans of Tracy Kidder's The Soul of a
New Machine will enjoy a peek at this one. -- TH

Johnston, Leslie and Katherine Jones-Garmil. "So You Want to Build a
Web Site" Museum News (Jan/Feb 1997):41-44 -- After you thought you'd
seen all you needed of introductory articles on how to make web
sites... this one is worth looking at. The authors cite URLs to back
up each section, but more importantly they give a good overview of
issues to consider when planning a website, including server options,
access issues, etc. This is an up-to-date, concise, and
well-considered introduction to being an information provider on the
web. -- RR

Wilson, David L. "Internet Managers are Poised to Change the System of
On-line Address" Chronicle of Higher Education 43(22) (February 7,
1997):A25-A26. -- Corporate vanity is not the only reason that the
Internet International Ad Hoc Committee is recommending the addition
of new "top level domain names" for Internet addresses, but you can
bet it has played a big role. "Internet domain names" (that's the part
on the right side of the final period, such as ".edu" and ".com") are
being assigned quickly and more capacity is needed; also, new
top-level names will give firms another chance to grab a vanity
address that's similar to their overall corporate identity. The final
recommendations aren't done yet, but look for new domain names like
"paramount.ent" that offer better top-level classification. The
committee will recommend at least seven new choices, but the final
recommendation may grow to 20. -- TH

Wilson, David. L. "With 98 Colleges Taking Part, Internet II May Start
within Six Months" Chronicle of Higher Education 43(22) (February 7,
1997):A25-A26. -- This article gives an interesting overview of the
new, high-speed alternative to the current Internet, "Internet II."
The new network will focus on the needs of research universities. This
initiative, which originally sought a mere dozen participants, now has
nearly 100 campus partners. A key element of the infrastructure of the
new network will be known as "gigabit points of presence," or
"gigapops." There may be as many as 50 gigapop locations (one per
state) that will enable local traffic to move at speeds many times
faster than is currently possible. Computer scientists forecast that
the new system may be on-line in six months. -- TH

Information Technology and Society

Anderson, Kurt. "The Age of Unreason" The New Yorker 72(45) (February
3, 1997):40-43. -- Anderson explores the impact of the "culture"
business, and dueling statistics in particular. He finds a growing
reluctance on the part of intellectuals to accept the existence of
indisputable facts; instead, facts are constantly disputed by parallel
survey research, number crunching and counter-claims that are made
against all viewpoints. He cites the Internet as a case study, because
quasi-factual web sites that look reliable may in fact be riddled with
half-baked reasoning. How do those in pursuit of critical thinking
navigate through all the half truths? A growing dilemma. Anderson also
analyzes the well-publicized claims about TWA Flight 800 that
journalist Pierre Salinger obtained from the Internet. Although
Anderson doesn't focus solely on Net culture, this article is
interesting for those who watch the digital Zeitgeist. -- TH

Druckery, Timothy, ed. Electronic Culture: Technology and Visual
Representation New York: Aperture Publishers, 1996. -- Comprehensive
and in-depth, this book contains essays by over 30 artists,
information scientists, designers and academics on the cultural impact
of extended visualization via computer imaging and networks in the
fields of art, the sciences and history. The first articles start with
an historical look at representation, then move through photographic
and para-photographic imaging technology. The authors then consider
theory and end by addressing media, identity and culture. It's a lot
of slippery material to cover, but it's done well, and helpful to step
back from the daily work and consider what we're doing. -- RR


Chepesiuk, Ron. "The Future is Here: America's Libraries Go Digital"
American Libraries 27(1) (January 1997):47-49. -- In this brief
overview article Chepesiuk identifies many of the higher-profile
digital library projects that are trying to reinvent the future of
libraries. He also describes some of the toughest issues such projects
are trying to resolve, including preservation, copyright, and
interoperability. Chepesiuk also acknowledges, as does probably
everyone involved with such projects, that print materials and library
collections of them will not be replaced by digital libraries.
Included are addresses (URLs) for some important digital library
projects and resources. -- RT

Verity, John M. "Coaxing Meaning Out of Raw Data: How Software Can Now
Find Patterns Never Seen Before" Businessweek (3512) (February 3,
1997):134-38 ( --
This is a really interesting article that describes exactly what "data
mining" and "data warehousing" are all about. Data mining refers to a
class of software analysis tools that can parse very, very large
datasets and find "meaningful" patterns. For example, we're talking
combinations like US Census data, 10 years of product sales history in
50 states, every telephone call from millions of numbers, plus any
number of other factors. Data warehousing systems analyze datasets in
the trillions of bytes on ultra-fast servers, and can help managers
pinpoint trends and inventory levels almost instantly. This approach
is especially helpful at catching fraud like cell-phone theft, or
strategic planning like customer-retention. But it also has big
implications for qualitative information management of the sort that
happens in libraries. Keep an eye on this trend in programming! -- TH


Current Cites 8(2) (February 1997) ISSN: 1060-2356 Copyright (C) 1997
by the Library, University of California, Berkeley. _All rights

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13. International Journal on Digital Libraries

(posted: <>
Date: Tue, 11 Mar 1997 10:49:05 -0500)

Announcement and Call for Papers

New Journal: International Journal on Digital Libraries

Nabil R. Adam Yelena Yesha
Newark, NJ 07102 Baltimore, MD 21228
(201) 648-5239 (410) 455-3542

The aim of the journal is to advance the theory and practice of acquisition,
definition, organization, management and dissemination of digital information
via global networking. In particular, the journal will emphasize technical
issues in digital information, production, management and use, issue in
high-speed networks and connectivity, inter-operability, and seamless
integration of information, people, profiles, tasks and needs, security and
privacy of individuals and business transactions and effective business
processes in the Information Age. The journal seeks high quality research
papers that present original theoretical results, algorithms, or approaches, as
well as empirical and experimental studies related to the following areas:

* Agent technology for information filtering; location and dissemination;
targeted information delivery systems; personal information delivery and
filtering; discovery of new information and sources of new information.
* Acquisition of digital information; authoring environments for digital
objects; digitization of traditional content.
* Security and privacy, digital timestamping, digital signatures, digital
watermarks, notarization and authentication systems.
* Information organization, storage and management, archival of information,
subscription management and issues in recency of information.
* Interoperability of different digital objects, multimodal presentations,
cross-platform interoperability.
* Information navigation, intelligent surfing and browsing, automatic browsing
index creation, resource discovery, through opinion indexing, search by
content, semantic searching, smart indexing and search technology.
* User interface for digital objects, design of user interfaces for universal
access, multimedia user interfaces, interface for handicapped users, adaptive
user interfaces.
* Electronic commerce, virtual banking, electronic financial transactions.
* Economics of Digital Libraries, intellectual property issues, billing
systems, universal access and tariffs.

An electronic edition is in preparation.

Instructions for authors are available from:

For subscription info and sample copies contact
Springer-Verlag; Heidelberger Platz 3; D-14197 Berlin, Germany;

Kornelia Junge Phone: +49 30 82787 321
Marketing Manager Journals Fax: +49 30 82787 334
Springer-Verlag e-mail:
Heidelberger Platz 3
D-14197 Berlin
14. JoDI

(posted: <>
Date: Sun, 16 Mar 1997 14:07:33 +0000)

Journal of Digital Information -- Call for Submissions

The Journal of Digital Information, JoDI, is an electronic journal (with no
paper equivalent form) intended to serve the community of workers in the
multidisciplinary field of digital information. The journal aims to be the
primary electronic source for high quality refereed articles. The journal will
also provide support for the online discussion of articles, a process as vital
to the community as the formal publication process itself.

The formal launch of JoDI will be at Hypertext '97, the 8th ACM Hypertext
conference to be held at Southampton University from 6-11 April 1997.

The journal invites submissions on a wide variety of topics, for example:

digital libraries
hypermedia systems
intelligent agents
information management
interfaces to digital information
social consequences of digital information
digital information design

...and related topics. Furthermore, submission of electronic documents which
could not exist in paper form (e.g., containing sound, animation, hypermedia
links) is encouraged. Articles can be submitted in most electronic formats.
However, since the journal will be made available over the World Wide Web,
articles already in this format will require less modification prior to

Access to JoDI will be free at least until December 1998. There is a once-only
registration process before articles can be accessed in order to help in
monitoring usage and developing pricing models.

JoDI will also contain abstracts, book reviews and lab reports which do not
require reader registration.

For details on how to submit articles to JoDI, please refer to the JoDI web
site at

JoDI *************************************************************
Journal of Digital Information, a new electronic journal supported by the
British Computer Society and Oxford University Press, hosted at the University
of Southampton Multimedia Group and mirrored at the Center for the Study of
Digital Libraries, Texas A&M University.



This document may be circulated freely
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_LIBRES: Library and Information Science
Electronic Journal_ (ISSN 1058-6768) March, 1997
Volume 7 Issue 1.
For any commercial use, or publication
(including electronic journals), you must obtain
the permission of the Editor-in-Chief:
Kerry Smith
Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia


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