LIBRES: Library and Information Science Research
Electronic Journal ISSN 1058-6768
2000 Volume 10 Issue 1; March.







Editorial note:


This section contains items culled from various Internet news services, discussion lists and other announcements.  Unless specifically noted, I have not visited the sites, used any of the software, reviewed the literature, or written the news items.  I present this digest to you in good faith but cannot vouch for the accuracy of its content.






Date:         Tue, 2 Nov 1999 17:49:05 -0500

Sender:       Solo Librarians Listserv <SOLOLIB-L@LISTSERV.SILVERPLATTER.COM>

From:         Gerry Hurley <gerry_hurley@SILVERPLATTER.COM>

Subject:      Current Cites - October 1999


Hi everyone,



                       _Current Cites_

               Volume 10, no. 10 October 1999

       The Library University of California, Berkeley

                   Edited by Teri Andrews Rinne


                       ISSN: 1060-2356


      Contributors: Terry Huwe, Michael Levy, Leslie Myrick,

         Margaret Phillips, Jim Ronningen, Lisa Rowlison,

                   Roy Tennant, Lisa Yesson


   _Editor's Note:_ A hearty welcome to two new Current Cites

   contributors who debut with this month's issue: Michael Levy,

   Electronic Services Librarian at UCB's Boalt School of Law and Leslie

   Myrick, who works on the SCAN Project in the Electronic Text Unit of

   UCB Library Systems Office. And an even heartier welcome back to one

   of Current Cites' original contributors, Lisa Rowlison, now

   Coordinator of Bibliographic Services at California State University,

   Monterey Bay.



   American Association of Law Libraries. Committee on Citation Formats.

   Universal Citation Guide Madison, WI: State Bar of Wisconsin, 1999. -

   The question of how to cite court opinions, legislative materials and

   administrative rules and regulations is crucial to the practice of

   law. As the authors of the Universal Citation Guide (UCG) state in

   their introduction "current citation rules were crafted for the gilded

   age of the law book and this symmetry is disintegrating as computer

   technology reshapes the legal record." After many years of work with

   federal and state courts, the American Bar Association, and various

   public interest organizations the American Association of Law

   Libraries (AALL) has produced a comprehensive set of citation

   principles that will allow for both medium and vendor-neutral

   citation. By adopting the principles laid out in the UCG courts will

   be able to provide a citation to a court case that is not dependent on

   a particular legal publisher or a particular format of publication.

   For court opinions this means using five data elements: case name,

   year, court, opinion number and paragraph number. Thus far eleven

   states have adopted uniform citation, the most significant being

   Wisconsin. While the UCG isn't designed to be scintillating reading,

   it is clearly explained and the rules relatively simple to follow.

   It's overarching importance lies in the fact that it is the most

   significant attempt to date to address citation in the digital medium

   and to cut the ties of dependence on large legal publishers. While the

   UCG isn't available in electronic form, a tentative draft (from 1998)

   is available at:

   - ML


   Besser, Howard. "Digital Image Distribution" D-Lib Magazine 5(10)

   (October 1999) ( -

   This paper is a report on the UC Berkeley study The Cost of Digital

   Imaging Distribution: The Social and Economic Implications of the

   Production, Distribution, and Usage of Image Data

   ( The

   purpose of the study was to explore such questions as "As we construct

   new electronic information systems, what are the implications of

   merging content and metadata from multiple sources? How do the costs

   and services in a digital distribution scheme differ from those in an

   analog one? What steps can we take to entice users who currently rely

   upon analog resources to begin seriously employing digital resources?"

   Specifically, the study focuses on the experiences of the Museum

   Educational Site Licensing Project (MESL), which began in 1995. The

   bulk of the paper describes a number of interesting findings from the

   project and the subsequent analysis. Although Besser is an advocate

   for digital imaging, he pulls no punches here in identifying key

   problem areas and issues that require resolution. This paper is

   essential reading for anyone interested in digital image collections.

   - RT


   Ensign, David. "West's Copyright Claim to Star Pagination Denied by

   Second Circuit" AALL Spectrum 2(10) (July 1999): 12, 35.

   ( - In this brief and

   succinct article on recent copyright decisions regarding the West

   Publishing Company (now West Group, part of Thomson Corporation),

   Ensign explains the importance of "star pagination" in legal

   publishing and the possible effects on the market for print and

   electronic compilations of court decisions. Two recent opinions from

   the Second Circuit have seriously undermined West's claims that their

   use of star pagination and that the selection and arrangement of

   prefatory information in court opinions is copyrightable. The ability

   of other publishers, especially those producing opinions in

   electronic format, to insert page numbers from West's National

   Reporter System is crucial in having a viable competitive market in

   legal publishing. With the Supreme Court refusing to hear appeals on

   these two cases it would seem that a major blow has been given to one

   of the behemoths of the legal publishing world. - ML


   Hyman, Karen. "Customer Service and the 'Rule of 1965'" American

   Libraries 30(9) (October 1999): 54-58. - Hyman puts forth an

   intriguing and all-too-likely premise: "customer service, according to

   the Rule of 1965, defines anything the library did prior to 1965 as

   basic; everything else is extra." To back up her claim, she cites a

   number of examples of the apparent application of this "rule" to

   justify not offering new services. She also offers a "quiz" to see

   whether you are applying this rule in your library. Hyman then

   concludes with the following five things you can start doing today:

   "1) Remember that the customer is not the enemy; 2) Create a climate

   in your library that supports change; 3) Survey the environment

   continuously; 4) Redirect resources; and, 5) Treat every customer like

   a person." Hyman delivers a well-deserved kick in the tail, which I

   hope will propel us into a better customer service posture and render

   the "Rule of 1965" obsolete. - RT


   Lee, Stuart D. Scoping the Future of the University of Oxford's

   Digital Library Collections Oxford: Bodleian Library, University of

   Oxford, 1999 ( - Although this

   report is for the internal use of Oxford University, "outsiders" can

   benefit from it in a number of ways. The report provides a high-level

   overview of some (but certainly not all) national and international

   digital library initiatives and a thorough listing of Oxford-based

   digital projects and collections. A significant portion of the paper

   is devoted to findings from the interviews conducted of both on campus

   staff and others active in digitization projects. Accompanying

   appendices provide additional detail on these findings. The final part

   of the paper is devoted to specific recommendations for better

   coordinating and managing Oxford's digital initiatives, largely by

   establishing Oxford Digital Library Services. Any organization, in

   particular large universities, managing a diverse range of

   digitization projects will likely find this report to be useful. - RT


   Mappa Mundi ( - There is a new breed of

   cartologist out there "mapping the Web" in all its aspects; prominent

   amongst them is Martin Dodge, the creator of a site aptly entitled An

   Atlas of Cyberspaces

   ( Dodge is also a

   regular contributor to a website which I am perhaps unfelicitously

   naming this month's "Site/Cite for Sore Eyes," not only for its

   drop-dead gorgeous graphics throughout, but also for its

   cyber-cartographically-tinged content, served up in eminently

   digestible portions. Patently a forum for Invisible Worlds Inc., the

   developers (with Danny Goodman in the lead) of the EdgarSpace portal,

   Mappa Mundi nevertheless addresses issues germane to any serious Web

   navigator. A recent article on trace routes

   ( will serve as a

   case in point. The study of trace routes as a tool for keeping

   networks running smoothly is a clear manifestation of the practical

   side of mapping the net. The article in question is rather basic in

   intent and structure: it essentially compares the performance of three

   commercially available traceroute applications: GeoBoy, NeoTrace and

   Visual Route. What is striking is the author's cyber-geographical

   slant, and the added value lading the article itself (great

   screen-shots) and the sidebars (links galore). One sidebar, for

   instance, offers a chance to test-run a triangulating Web tracer from

   Canberra, Australia to the Mappa Mundi server, which sits presumably

   somewhere across the San Francisco Bay. The Map of the Month archives

   are presently mapping aspects of the Web as disparate as Arpanet and

   MUDs. - LM


   McLoughlin, Glenn J. "Next Generation Internet and Related

   Initiatives" Journal of Academic Librarianship 25(3) (May 1999):

   226-229. - McLoughlin unpacks the Internet alphabet soup giving

   historical perspective and current status to the many federal

   computing and communications efforts. Included in his treatment are

   the Next Generation Internet (NGI) initiative, the National

   Information Infrastructure (NII), the High Performance Computing &

   Communications initiative (HPCC), the proposed Information Technology

   for the 21st Century (IT2) program, as well as Internet2. The next

   time you're waiting for a Web page to load at a snail's pace, consider

   that the fiscal year 2000 budget request for IT2, HPCC, and the NGI

   amounts to 1.8 billion dollars, which is to be distributed across six

   primary agencies. McLoughlin's final question, "can the NCO [National

   Coordinating Office] ensure that multiple federal computing and

   communications efforts are effective and efficient, and serve the

   national interest?"cuts to the heart of the matter, especially since

   50 percent of the U.S. population will rely upon and access the

   Internet in the year 2000. - LR


   Medeiros, Norm. "Making Room for MARC in a Dublin Core World" Online

   (23)6 (Nov. 1999).

   ( - Among

   librarians there has been debate about whether the MARC

   (Machine-Readable Cataloging) format should be replaced, since it was

   created to mimic in computer form something which is nearly obsolete

   now: the library catalog card. New methods of resource description

   have evolved since MARC was designed, but Medeiros points out that the

   millions of MARC records in online catalogs today aren't going to go

   away as simpler descriptive formats such as Dublin Core Metadata are

   implemented for information retrieval, and that MARC will continue to

   be useful, even in some cases for the description of Internet

   resources (which is Dublin Core's raison d'etre). He examines the

   nature of MARC and Dublin Core, contrasts their uses, and describes a

   developing environment in which they peacefully coexist: the

   Cooperative Online Resource Catalog (CORC), an OCLC-sponsored

   project. Participants build the database by contributing records in

   whichever of the two formats is most appropriate for the level of

   detail needed. - JR


   Moglen, Eben. "Anarchism Triumphant: Free Software and the Death of

   Copyright" First Monday 4(8) (August 2, 1999)

   ( - Moglen, a law

   professor at Columbia, exercises an insouciant wit in poking holes in

   the existing concepts of intellectual property. Importantly, he

   focuses mainly on "real" software: operating systems, and application

   programs and the like. He declares, "In the digital society, it's all

   connected. We can't depend for the long run on distinguishing one

   bitstream from another in order to figure out which rules apply. What

   happened to software is already happening to music. Their recording

   industry lordships are now scrambling wildly to retain control over

   distribution, as both musicians and listeners realize that the

   middlepeople are no longer necessary." He may have a point, but

   "bricks and mortar" businesses have done well on the Net, and the

   "gift economy" of donated labor hasn't hit my neighborhood record

   store. - TH


   Okerson, Ann. "The LIBLICENSE Project and How it Grows" D-Lib Magazine

   5(9) (September 1999)

   ( - Under

   the aegis of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR),

   a team of librarians, lawyers and web designers at Yale University

   Library has launched the LIBLICENSE project

   (, a site bristling

   with tools to arm librarians and other purchasers and purveyors of

   electronic resources against a proliferating and confusing array of

   economic and business models for licensing agreements. This is an

   impressive repository of information which seeks to "de-mystify" and

   expedite the process of securing the best possible licensing deal, as

   well as to pave the way for the eventual standardization of electronic

   licensing agreements. The user will find well-researched sections

   covering licensing vocabulary (and its judicious deployment), terms

   and descriptions, as well as bibliography, and links to other

   licensing sites. Flying in the face of those who might seek to keep

   such legal arrangements closeted and esoteric, the LIBLICENSE site

   maintains a page with copious links to actual licenses from both

   publishers and authors, as well as a page devoted to model national

   site licenses. The second phase of the grant has underwritten the

   creation of LIBLICENSE software, freely downloadable, which provides a

   sharp-looking "Integrated Development Environment" for creating one's

   own license, replete with reference material and a panoply of options

   promising to address with the click of a button everything from

   Authorized Users to Warranties. - LM


   Olsen, Florence. "Archivists Struggle to Preserve Crucial Records as

   Paper Gives Way to Pixels" Chronicle of Higher Education 45(9)

   (October 22, 1999): A63. - This article provides a good summary of the

   dilemma facing archivists, who want to preserve e-information for its

   value as primary material. The ephemeral nature of digital information

   poses a serious problem over the long term, but that's not news. The

   news is that archivists and information technology managers may have

   discovered that they both exist in the same world and have related

   problems and solutions to share. One can only hope that long term

   partnerships between preservationists and technologists will yield

   some solutions before the ephemera is marooned in outmoded operating

   systems, or other subdirectories in the multi-platform dust bin of

   history. - TH


   O'Reilly, Tim. "Where the Web Leads Us" (October 6, 1999)

   ( - For the latent mark-up

   code-monkey in all of us there is (, where,

   interspersed amongst hard-core technical articles archived on the

   site, there are plenty of useful "how-to's" for beginners or the

   curious. I would single out any of Norm Walsh's contributions, e.g. "A

   Technical Introduction to XML"

   (, or Tim Bray's interactive

   annotated XML 1.0 spec

   ( In a similarly

   didactic vein, the October 6th issue of offers a version of a

   recent talk given at Linux World by publisher Tim O'Reilly, addressing

   how Open Source protocols and tools (TCP/IP, SMTP, BIND, Apache,

   HTML/SGML/XML, Perl, Unicode) will continue to shape the future of the

   Web. The message is schematically simple: O'Reilly traces the

   evolution of the computer/IT industry through a series of paradigm

   shifts, first unleashed when IBM released the specs for the PC: from

   hardware to software to what he labels infoware, i.e.

   information-heavy sites such as or E*Trade, which marry

   powerful backends to deceptively rich and simple user interfaces. This

   article is also a cautionary tale: lest we dance too ebulliently in the

   wake of victories over Goliath, Microsoft has indeed exhibited some

   Hydra-like tendencies in its ability to come back and create

   applications which target specific open source markets, such as ASP as

   a response to Perl/CGI or Exchange Server over against Sendmail. In

   another vein, when the "next killer app" is so heavily entrenched in

   the open source software which makes the Web possible, we may even

   find ourselves facing a new type of proprietary infoware giant and

   empire. - LM


   Prinsen, Jola G.B. and Hans Geleijnse. "The International Summer

   School on the Digital Library" D-Lib Magazine 5(10) (October 1999)

   ( - In a

   field that is in the midst of inventing itself (digital

   librarianship), there are few opportunities for instruction and

   (re)training of working professionals. The most notable exception is

   the International Summer School on the Digital Library, offered for

   the past four years at Tilburg University in the Netherlands. In an

   interesting and apparently effective fashion, the Tilburg University

   Library and Computer Centre jointly launched a commercial venture

   (Ticer, at to manage the school. But what is

   really interesting are the things they've learned. For example, they

   found that participants have wanted more opportunity for discussion

   despite the increase of group work and discussion sessions each year.

   They also found, not surprisingly, that the participants were more

   technologically aware and adept each successive year. In addition, as

   technical problems recede in the face of an increasing diversity of

   "off the shelf" solutions, manager and organizational issues become

   more pressing. This is also reflected in the attendance, with the

   largest single group being composed of managerial staff (60% hold

   middle or upper management positions). - RT


   Tidwell, Alan. "The Virtual Agora: Online Ethical Dialogues and

   Professional Communities" First Monday 4 (7) (July 5, 1999)

   ( - Tidwell draws

   an analogy between digital forums and the Greek agora, or marketplace,

   which was where citizens met to discuss and debate topics of

   importance. He asserts that the Net is a new agora, giving voice to

   many, and replicating the raucous culture of public debate that was

   far more unruly in Greek city states than in most forms of modern

   discourse. He extends the metaphor by focusing on the use of Web

   technology in fostering and sustaining ethical debates between

   professional communities. - TH



   Current Cites 10(10) (October 1999) ISSN: 1060-2356

   Copyright (c) 1999 by the Library, University of California,

   Berkeley. _All rights reserved._


   Copying is permitted for noncommercial use by computerized bulletin

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   replacing "[your name]" with your name. To unsubscribe, send the

   message "unsub cites" to the same address. Editor: Teri Andrews Rinne,




Vol 10. no 11.   November 1999



Date:         Fri, 3 Dec 1999 11:04:48 -0500

Sender:       Solo Librarians Listserv <SOLOLIB-L@LISTSERV.SILVERPLATTER.COM>

From:         Gerry Hurley <gerry_hurley@SILVERPLATTER.COM>

Subject:      Current Cites - November 1999


Here is the latest issue of Current Cites from  PACS-L

Gerry Hurley




                       _Current Cites_

               Volume 10, no. 11 November 1999

       The Library University of California, Berkeley

                   Edited by Teri Andrews Rinne


                       ISSN: 1060-2356


      Contributors: Terry Huwe, Michael Levy, Leslie Myrick,

         Margaret Phillips, Jim Ronningen, Lisa Rowlison,

                   Roy Tennant, Lisa Yesson


   Carnevale, Dan. "Web Services Help Professors Detect Plagiarism" The

   Chronicle of Higher Education

   ( - The Web has

   brought a double-edged sword into conventional and distance-education

   classrooms alike: easy access to digital information can mean

   increased access to plagiarizable information, whether in the form of

   online encyclopedia articles or from the growing online term-paper

   market. Moreover, "copying" bits of somebody else's work is now as

   arduous as cutting and pasting text. Ironically, the same nexus of

   search engines that students use to find articles online can be tapped

   by instructors to sniff out those "hauntingly familiar" or "overly

   ornate" passages. But while entering the offending phrases into a

   text-rich search engine is infinitely easier than a trip to a

   bookstore or library to pore through Cliff's Notes or the Encyclopedia

   Britannica, most instructors don't have the time to surf for purloined

   bits. Enter web entrepreneurship in the shape of companies such as, or, which maintain databases of

   papers culled from various sources; the former also offers to send

   papers through a multiple search-engine gamut.'s

   resulting originality report highlights suspect passages of eight

   words or more and provides a link to the web text it matches. In the

   manner of a badly concealed speed-trap, prevention may lie at least

   partially in the fact that professors openly register their students

   and in some cases students upload their own papers for scrutiny.

   Astonishingly, however, despite fair warning, in one early case study

   in a class held at UC Berkeley, some 45 papers out of a total of 320

   were found to contain "suspicious passages". - LM


   Coombs, Norman. "Enabling Technologies: New Patrons: New Challenges"

   Library Hi Tech 17(2) (1999): 207-210. - In his regular column on

   enabling technologies for the "print disabled"- those who are dyslexic

   and those who cannot hold and manipulate books - Coombs aims to

   highlight the hardware and software tools that libraries need utilize

   in order to make electronic resources accessible to the widest

   possible range of users. His aim is to "persuade librarians that

   taking on this new task will be a challenge and opportunity rather

   than another burden." As a blind professor, Coombs discusses his

   initial work with a speech synthesizer to access an online catalog

   through to the capability to read web documents. In particular he

   discusses IBMs most recent web browser for special needs patrons

   called Home Page Reader Version 2.0. Using the numeric keypad and a

   combination of individual other keys the user can send commands to the

   program. What makes HPR more useful than simple screen readers is that

   it allows for comprehensive HTML handling and navigation, so that it

   will deal with frames, tables, forms list and menus. Unlike regular

   screen readers it actually examines the HTML code itself but

   unfortunately does not handle Java. In Coombs informative review he

   has effectively highlighted some issues that should be of concern to

   all librarians. - ML


   Ganesan, Ravi. "The Messyware Advantage" Communications of the ACM

   42(11) (November 1999) - Librarians and other information organizers,

   take heart - we're messyware and we're indispensable. Playing devil's

   advocate, the author starts by describing the Internet commerce

   scenario which so many digital pundits espoused not long ago: a direct

   link between producer and consumer, with the hated middleman

   eliminated. In questioning why the opposite seems to be happening when

   we place a high value on a new kind of dot-com middleman such as

   Amazon or Yahoo, he introduces his concept of messyware, which he

   describes as "the sum of the institutional subject area knowledge,

   experienced human capital, core business practices, service, quality

   focus and IT assets required to run any business." Why the term

   "messyware"? While a software solution may be all you need when

   systems are running perfectly, real life tends to get messy. (The

   photographs accompanying the text get this point across admirably.

   They depict people on a rainy streetcorner buying cheap umbrellas from

   a roving umbrella salesman. Thanks to this middleman, they are getting

   exactly what they need, when and where they need it, and would

   certainly not benefit by cutting out the middleman and going directly

   to the source.) Ganesan, bless him, uses libraries as an example of

   the value of expert intermediation which can deal with the infomess.

   His primary focus is on business, but there is plenty to ponder here

   for all information professionals, including strategic pointers for

   leveraging the messyware advantage. This article is just one of many

   fascinating pieces on information discovery, the issue's special

   theme. - JR


   Jones, Michael L. W., Geri K. Gay, and Robert H. Rieger. "Project

   Soup: Comparing Evaluations of Digital Collection Efforts" D-Lib

   Magazine (November 1999)

   ( - The Human

   Computer Interaction Group at Cornell University has been evaluating

   particular digital library and museum projects since 1995. In this

   article they discuss their findings related to five projects (three

   museum and two library). Their conclusions include: Effective digital

   collections are complex sociotechnical systems; Involve stakeholders

   early; Backstage, content and usability issues are highly

   interdependent; Background issues should be "translucent" vs.

   transparent; Determine collection organization, copyright, and

   quantity goals around social, not technical or political, criteria;

   Design around moderate but increasing levels of hardware and user

   expertise; "Market" the collection to intended and potential user

   groups; and, Look elsewhere for new directions. - RT


   Lewis, Peter H. "Picking the Right Data Superhighway" New York Times


   ml) - For surfers seeking that tubular high-bandwidth download, there

   is now more than one wave to catch (depending, of course, on

   availability), each with its own advantages and pitfalls. This article

   examines three modes of high-bandwidth Internet service: cable modem,

   DSL and satellite data services. Lewis was in the lucky position

   (Austin, TX; expense account) to test all three, using as his criteria

   speed, performance, price, security, and choice of ISP services. His

   assessment(your results may vary): while any of the three is

   preferable to an analog modem insofar as the connection is always on,

   satellite data services can be easily factored out for all but the

   most remotely situated users due to huge financial outlays, from

   hardware to installation to monthly fees and possible phone charges to

   distant ISP providers. Speed is also an issue, at a "measly" 400 kbps.

   Cable modems, while they offer theoretically the speediest of

   connections: (30 mbps possible), suffer from "Jekyl-and-Hyde"-like

   yawls in performance, since cable is a shared resource. The more

   neighbors to whom you gloat over your wealth of bandwidth, the worse

   it will become. A more likely figure is 1 mbps. You may also find you

   have security concerns. DSL, on the other hand, has a dedicated line,

   so there are no security problems. But it is hands down the costlier

   alternative. Moreover, outside of a radius of 17,500 feet from the

   phone company's central office (or about 3 miles), performance suffers

   significantly, unless you are willing to pay extravagant sums. Data is

   loaded at somewhat slower speeds than cable's best numbers: download

   can run from 384 kbps to 1.5 mbps, with upload consistently logy at

   128kbps. All these considerations aside, Lewis goes with DSL. The

   deciding factor is often in the details: having to deal with the

   telephone company vs the cable company, the choice of ISPs (in the

   case of cable modems, practically nonexistent), and so on. - LM


   Malik, Om. "How Google is That?" Forbes Magazine

   ( Walker, Leslie.

   ".COM-LIVE" (The Washington Post Interview with Sergey Brin, founder

   and CEO of Google)


   walker110499.htm) - For those users of the recently-launched search

   engine Google ( who have consistently found its

   searching and ranking facilities spot on, and wondered, "How do they

   DO that?", two recent articles offer some answers; but the algorithm

   remains a mystery. With the backing of the two biggest venture capital

   firms in the Silicon Valley, and a PC farm of 2000 computers, another

   boy-wonder team out of Stanford has revolutionized indexing and

   searching the Web. The results have been so satisfying that Google

   processes some 4 million queries a day. Google, whose name is based on

   a whimsical variant of googol, i.e. a 1 followed by 100 zeroes, claims

   to be one of the few search engines poised to handle the googolous

   volume of the Web, estimated to be increasing by 1.5 million new pages

   daily. It uses a patented search algorithm (PageRank technology) based

   not on keywords, but on hypertext and link analysis. Critics describe

   the ranking system as "a popularity contest"; the Google help page

   prefers to characterize it in terms of democratic "vote-casting" by

   one page for another (well, some votes "count more" than others ...).

   Basically, sites are ranked according to the number and importance of

   the pages that link to it. In a typical crawl, according to Brin,

   Google reads 200 million webpages and factors in 3 billion links.

   Decidedly NOT a portal, when Google came out of beta in late September

   the only substantive change made to the fast-loading white page

   inscribed with the company name and a single query textbox was a

   polished new logo. A helpful newish feature is Googlescout, which

   offers links to information related to any given search result. There

   are also specialized databases of US government and Linux resources.

   It appears that the refreshing lack of advertising on its search page

   will not last forever: in the works is a text-based (rather than

   banner-based) "context-sensitive" advertising scheme, generated

   dynamically from any given query. - LM


   Miller, Robert. "Cite-Seeing in New Jersey" American Libraries 30(10)

   (November 1999): 54-57. - Tracking down fragmentary citations or

   hard-to-locate material is a classic library service. But in this

   piece Miller highlights how the tools for performing this service have

   changed. Classic citation-tracking resources are still used, but now

   the Web can be used as well. A few interesting anecdotes illustrate

   how a little imagination, experience, and perseverance can make the

   Internet cough up the answer when the usual resources fail. Miller

   illustrates how the best librarians are those who can absorb new tools

   into their workflow as they become available, and therefore become

   more effective at their job. - RT


   netConnect. Supplement to Library Journal October 15, 1999. This very

   slim but incredibly pithy supplement to LJ is modestly subtitled "The

   Librarian's Link to the Internet". I doubt anyone needs this

   publication to get online, but the point is taken. It is aimed at

   bringing focused information regarding the Internet to LJ's audience.

   And if this first issue is any indication, they will be successful

   doing it. Contributions to this issue include Clifford Lynch on

   e-books (an absolute must-read for anyone interested in this

   technology), a couple pieces by Sara Weissman, co-moderator of the

   PubLib discussion, an article on net laws from an attorney at the

   Missouri Attorney General's Office, a practical article on creating

   low-bandwidth web images without sacrificing quantity and quality, and

   an article on Web-based multimedia from Pat Ensor, among others. This

   is a solid publication that I cannot wait to see again. Disclosure

   statement: I am a Library Journal columnist. - RT


   Pitti, Daniel. "Encoded Archival Description: An Introduction and

   Overview" D-Lib Magazine (November 1999)

   ( - Encoded Archival

   Description (EAD) is a draft standard SGML/XML Document Type

   Definition (DTD) for online archival finding aids. In this overview

   article, the father of EAD explains what it is, why it exists, and

   what future developments may lie in store. - RT


   Planning Digital Projects for Historical Collections in New York State

   New York: New York State Library, New York Public Library, 1999

   ( - This brochure serves as a

   useful high-level introduction to digitizing historical collections.

   Following a brief history of New York Public Library's digitization

   projects, it dives into the heart of the matter -- planning a

   digitization project. Main sections include: What does a digital

   project involve?; Why undertake a digital project?; How to plan for

   digital projects; How to select collections and materials for a digital

   project; How to organize information; and, How to deliver materials

   effectively. A brief list of resources is also included. Before

   getting started in such a project you will need to do much more

   reading than this, but it nonetheless is a useful place to start -- in

   either it's print or web format. - RT


   Seadle, Michael. "Copyright in the Networked World: Email Attachments"

   Library Hi Tech 17(2) (1999): 217-221. - Seadle takes two commonplace

   uses of copying and evaluates whether they are legally acceptable in a

   digital environment. He gives a brief overview of the four keys test

   for determining "fair use" before discussing the specific cases. The

   first case is that of a faculty member distributing via email an

   article from the online interactive edition of the Wall Street Journal

   to his entire class. He had previously done similar things with the

   print version of the Journal and felt that this new use was still fair

   use. Unfortunately it would appear that the ability to make a full and

   perfect reproduction of a digital document destroys any barriers to

   further copying by students and would invalidate a fair use

   justification of this practice. In the second scenario a reference

   librarian sends via email a list of citations and full-text articles

   to a patron from the FirstSearch database. The librarian decided that

   if she deleted her copy of the downloaded documents that the end user

   would be complying with specific language in the database allowing for

   the downloading and storing documents for no more than 90 days. The

   differences are the librarian is sending the information to one person

   and not to a class, and the patron could have found the articles

   himself. So in essence the library was making an allowable copy for

   the user. Seadle admits that his arguments are not conclusive or

   exhaustive but in a clear way he outlines two interesting, yet normal

   copyright situations facing librarians and faculty. - ML


   "Tomorrow's Internet" The Economist 353 (8145) (November 13, 1999):23.


   - The cover story of this issue of The Economist focuses on the

   aftermath of the now-notorious "findings of fact" in the Microsoft

   antitrust case. This related article describes in detail the emerging,

   network-intensive style of computing that may reduce or eliminate the

   need for costly operating systems like Windows. Look no further for a

   balanced treatment of the forces behind "open system" computing, "thin

   clients", netcomputers and the like. As with all their technology

   reporting, the editors rely on plain English and disdain technobabble.

   - TH



   Current Cites 10(11) (November 1999) ISSN: 1060-2356

   Copyright (c) 1999 by the Library, University of California,

   Berkeley. _All rights reserved._


   Copying is permitted for noncommercial use by computerized bulletin

   board/conference systems, individual scholars, and libraries.

   Libraries are authorized to add the journal to their collections at no

   cost. This message must appear on copied material. All commercial use

   requires permission from the editor. All product names are trademarks

   or registered trade marks of their respective holders. Mention of a

   product in this publication does not necessarily imply endorsement of

   the product. To subscribe to the Current Cites distribution list, send

   the message "sub cites [your name]" to,

   replacing "[your name]" with your name. To unsubscribe, send the

   message "unsub cites" to the same address. Editor: Teri Andrews Rinne,






Volume 11, No 3, March 2000


> From: Gerry Hurley <gerry_hurley@SILVERPLATTER.COM>


> Subject: Current Cites March 2000

> Date: Saturday, 1 April 2000 6:27


> Hi Solos,

> Here's the latest issue of Current Cites

> Gerry Hurley


>                               _Current Cites_

>                         Volume 11, no. 3, March 2000

>                         Edited by Teri Andrews Rinne


>            The Library, University of California, Berkeley, 94720

>                              ISSN: 1060-2356 -



>       Contributors: Terry Huwe, Michael Levy, Leslie Myrick,

>     Margaret Phillips, Jim Ronningen, Lisa Rowlison, Roy Tennant


>    Arms, William Y. Digital Libraries MIT Press, Cambridge, MA: 2000. -

>    As the founder of D-Lib Magazine, Arms certainly has enough

>    credentials to attempt this book. The problem is that it's clear that

>    he hasn't ever had to keep the doors of a real library open. The book

>    is a hodge-podge of history, technologies, and research projects, but

>    by the end you may not be any clearer about how to build functional

>    digital library collections and services, and you certainly won't have

>    any idea about how to integrate digital library collections with

>    existing print ones, or virtual services with actual ones. As an

>    overview, it may be useful to have a brief explanation of a particular

>    technology, but it would help if some criteria for decisionmaking were

>    included. The index is overly selective. - RT


>    Cliff, Peter. "The Oxford English Dictionary Online"

>    ( and New, Juliet.

>    "'The World's Greatest Dictionary' Goes Online,"

>    ( Ariadne Issue 23

>    (March 23, 2000). See also free tour of the online OED at

> - The UKOLN-based journal Ariadne features two

>    informative articles covering the March 14th release of the OED Online

>    Edition, one an announcement from a member of the OED team, and the

>    other a user survey by a member of UKOLN staff. The venerable Oxford

>    English Dictionary now exists in three recensions: the original

>    fascicles spanning the period from 1884 to 1928; a 1989 second

>    edition, which consolidated further supplemental entries, but without

>    revising extant materials; and now an online version, the fruit of a

>    core group of about 300 OED staff, with technical support from

>    Stanford-based High Wire Press. The OED Online will benefit from a

>    20-year, 55-million-dollar program of revision, which will take into

>    account recent advances in research, for instance, in the field of

>    etymology. It will also encompass the addition of some 9000 words

>    researched over the last decade, an ambitious 3000 new words per

>    quarter during the year 2000, and untold thousands more through to the

>    end of the revision period, in 2010. Planned additions could actually

>    double the dictionary's present length. Whereas dictionary thumbers

>    might well bewail the curtailment of browsability and of the joys of

>    serendipitous discovery (only one word can be accessed on screen at a

>    time), the online OED promises to compensate with wildly increased

>    accessibility and searching through hyperlinks, full-text search with

>    wildcard features, and synonym finders. Some solace to dictionary

>    browsers may be found in the 25 side-barred links provided to entries

>    in direct proximity to the queried word, according to how they were

>    sorted: alphabetically, chronologically, and so on. Another nice

>    feature, of interest to historical lexicographers and others, is the

>    ability to compare the treatment of any given lexeme amongst the three

>    different editions. The major downside seems to be that the licensing

>    costs for such a gargantuan undertaking are bound to be, in a word,

>    prohibitive, starting at $550/individual, $795/institutional. - LM


>    Coyle, Karen. "The Virtual Union Catalog: A Comparative Study"

>    D-Lib Magazine 6(3) (March 2000) and Dovey, Matthew J. "So You

>    Want to Build a Union Catalogue?" Ariadne 23 (March 2000)

>    ( - These two articles both

>    look at how libraries can create union catalogs -- either virtually

>    (simultaneous searching of multiple catalog systems) or physically.

>    Dovey covers differences between the two models, and identifies where

>    each is relatively good or bad. Coyle's piece is the outcome of a

>    recent effort to decide how best to replace the aging MELVYL

>    catalog, the crowning achievement of the University of California

>    libraries. In testing a possible virtual union catalog replacement for

>    MELVYL, Coyle identified four areas that would require more testing

>    and analysis before determining if a virtual union catalog could

>    replace MELVYL: 1) database consistency and search accuracy (searches

>    of different catalog systems must retrieve comparable items), 2)

>    system availability (individual systems must be available 24x7), 3)

>    capacity planning for campus OPACs and the network (a virtual union

>    catalog would place a heavier load on campus network infrastructure),

>    and 4) sorting, merging, and duplicate removal. - RT


>    Gladney, Henry M. "Are Intellectual Property Rights a Digital

>    Dilemma? Controversial Topics and International Aspects" iMP:

>    Information Impacts Magazine (February 2000)

>    ( - As one of

>    the Committee members who authored the report "The Digital

>    Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age" (see:

> published by the Computer

>    Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), Gladney's article touches

>    on topical aspects of the Report which did not reach Committee

>    consensus. In an intellectually biting tone Gladney brings to light

>    some of the controversial issues surrounding intellectual property

>    rights, and takes a non-partisan role in exposing some of the rhetoric

>    of both copyright maximalists as well as copyright minimalists.

>    Sections on the ideological meanings of copyright, the limits of fair

>    use, distinctions between private use and piracy, and viewing

>    copyrighted materials in light of the 1997 No Electronic Theft (NET)

>    Act make for engaging reading. For example, as Gladney points out,

>    loading a copyrighted work into RAM for viewing via the web

>    constitutes a "copy" of copyrighted material and as such, users may

>    unwittingly be in violation of section 506(a)(2) of the Act -- which

>    calls for fines and imprisonment. However, examples such as this

>    explify the reasoning behind the Committee's conclusion that

>    legislative remedies ought to hold off in favor of accumulating

>    further experience with both digital IP issues and technological

>    solutions/developments. Gladney's examples of copyright conundrums and

>    his articulate explication of their surrounding legal environment

>    makes this a valuable and easy to read article. Additionally, the

>    international treatment of the subject creates a broader context in

>    which to view the U.S. stance. A significant bibliography points users

>    to most of the key articles, papers, and reports on the subject. - LR


>    Morrison, Alan, Michael Popham, and Karen Wikander. "Creating and

>    Documenting Electronic Texts: A Guide to Good Practice" AHDS Guides to

>    Good Practice. London: Arts and Humanities Data Service, 2000

>    ( - Every publication I've

>    seen to come out of the Arts and Humanities Data Service has been

>    top-notch. This one is no different, and in fact should stand as one

>    of the best explications of digitizing textual material for some time

>    to come. The completely online publication takes you from initial

>    considerations (analysing the text) through digitization and markup to

>    documentation and metadata. The staff of the Oxford Text Archive

>    have been doing this since well before the web, and their experience

>    shows. If you're digitizing textual material, run, don't walk to the

>    one resource that will help you more than any other. - RT


>    Museums and the Web 2000. International Conference by Archives and

>    Museum Informatics, Pittsburgh, PA.

>    ( - This web site epitomizes one of

>    the great things about the web. Here is a conference, which at the

>    time of this writing hasn't happened yet, and meanwhile most of the

>    papers of the presenters (over 45 of them) are available online. Those

>    of us who can't make it to the conference can nonetheless attend

>    "virtually," albeit without the hallway chats and in-person networking

>    over drinks. If you have anything to do with a Museum web site, the

>    papers here will be interesting and informative. If you have anything

>    to do with a web site at all, there may still be something of use here

>    as well. If you are interested in past papers presented at this

>    conference, see - RT


>    Peterson, Ivars. "Beyond Hits and Page Views" JEP: THe Journal

>    of Electronic Publishing 5 (3) (March 2000)

>    ( - Most articles

>    about web log analysis portray it as a powerful tool in the hands of

>    e-commerce marketers, but Peterson has shown how it can also be

>    fruitfully wielded in the hands of scholarly journal editors. This

>    article is a particularly good read for any scholarly publisher whose

>    interest in log analysis might stop short at a tally of hits and page

>    views to add pleasing statistics to a grant report. Peterson, the

>    online editor of Science News Online

>    (, has demonstrated here how careful

>    analysis of daily traffic logs has helped him to tailor the content of

>    his site to provide timely delivery of relevant information to his

>    audience and thereby ensure repeat visitors. For instance, the perusal

>    of log analysis reports can give a picture of the amount of time spent

>    during a visit, in order to ascertain which articles are being most

>    carefully read, or perhaps whether users are reading onscreen or

>    printing pages to read later. On a different level, they can also be

>    used to track a visitor's trails through a site, or from a referring

>    site to one's own. In the former case, analyses can be made of site

>    architecture; in the latter, one can get a sense of who is linking to

>    one's site. This sort of exercise can produce amusing results, e.g.

>    the discovery that a perfume company was providing a busy link to a

>    Science News article on pheromones. - LM


>    Rosenzweig, Roy. "The Riches of Hypertext for Scholarly Journals"

>    The Chronicle of Higher Education (March 17, 2000

>    ( - Rosenzweig,

>    Director of the Center for History and New Media (CHNM) at George

>    Mason University (, a collaboration between GMU

>    and the American Social History Project at the CUNY Center for Media

>    and Learning, uses experiences gained from various CHNM projects to

>    map the face and the direction of the new digital media. Because of

>    the extended and comfy-chair-seeking readerly shelf-life of humanities

>    scholarship (over against, say, physics or medicine), coupled with the

>    uncomfortable experience of onscreen reading, Rosenzweig does not

>    foresee cyberjournals replacing their print analogues anytime soon,

>    but rather, standing as a "digital supplement." With reference to

>    Janet H. Murray's formulation, in Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future

>    of Narrative in Cyberspace, of hypertext's potential for additive and

>    expressive form, Rosenzweig explores what, exactly, cyberjournals

>    allow us to do differently from print journals, culling examples from

>    CHNM-sponsored projects. It has been clear from the beginning that

>    online scholarship can offer more -- more material behind every

>    hyperlink, and a far wider field of dissemination. This primarily

>    additive aspect is well demonstrated by the Interpretation of the

>    Declaration of Independence Through Translation project

>    (, which serves as a prime model of

>    Rosenzweig's conception of hypermedia as archival "digital

>    supplement." Whether online journals can achieve something radically

>    different has been explored in an American Quarterly project

>    ( featuring four experimental hyper-essays

>    ("Dreaming Arnold Schwarzeneggar" especially stands out) which all, in

>    their own way, press the envelope of scholarly form. In the end, as

>    Rosenzweig suggests, it would seem that at some level, more =

>    different. The images he conjures to describe how cyberjournals will

>    look and function -- clone, hybrid, digital supplement -- foreground

>    the potent marginality of media which promise, as he claims, to

>    rewrite the scholarly social contract between readers and writers. -

>    LM


>    Wurman, Richard Saul. Understanding USA

>    ( Newport, RI: TED Conferences, 1999.

>    - This work, as complete on the web as it is in print, manages to

>    embody some of what's best and worst about the latest uses of

>    information technology. Wurman, who refers to himself as an

>    information architect, envisioned a project which would address a

>    perceived overabundance of data about the United States and come up

>    with graphical ways to clarify the information, leading to a greater

>    understanding. Picture a standard reference title such as The

>    Statistical Abstract of the United States

>    ( worked over by a group of

>    creative, cutting-edge designers, skilled in information display

>    through computer graphics and typography. Visually stimulating it is,

>    with a wide variety of pictorial representations for statistics in

>    demographics, government spending, crime, etc. Desktop computing power

>    has vastly increased the realm of possibilities for designers, and

>    here that's clearly a double-edged sword: it's become very easy to use

>    this wide array of tools to promote subjective interpretation and

>    selective emphasis, which are common in this work and take away from

>    its credibility. Statistics taken out of their original context and

>    given visual prominence take on an aura of being 'more true.' For

>    example, on a page about information anxiety, close to a picture of a

>    woman holding her head, is the debatable assertion that "75% to 90% of

>    all visits to physicians are stress-related," accompanied by the

>    skimpy citation "National Mental Health Association, 1997." It's there

>    in boldface, in something which claims to be a reference work,

>    encouraging the reader to take it at face value. But if you have some

>    doubts (like maybe this notion is predicated upon some hypothetical,

>    impossibly stress-free world of no hunger, war, debt, divorce or

>    traffic jams) there's no context here to help you -- you'll have to

>    dig elsewhere. In a brief, laudatory article titled "Information

>    as if Understanding Mattered"

>    ( in the March

>    2000 issue of Fast Company (

>    magazine, one of the designers, Nancye Green, is quoted thus: "People

>    don't care about cold facts. They care about pictures or stories that

>    are connected to themselves in some way. That's what learning is all

>    about. That's what leads to understanding." The phrase 'dumbing down'

>    comes to mind here, but maybe that's a little harsh. Those of us who

>    help people find information know that they do indeed want cold facts,

>    including numbers, and they want them complete, accurate and

>    verifiable. For people doing such research, the fact that a dataset

>    can be rendered now as a graphic resembling some multicolored mutant

>    eggplant may be amusing, but not highly useful. So take a look at this

>    collision of information technology, statistics and graphics, but

>    don't expect a reputable scholarly resource. Treat it as

>    great-looking, browsable infotainment. - JR

>      _________________________________________________________________


>             Current Cites 11(3) (March 2000) ISSN: 1060-2356

>     Copyright © 2000 by the Library, University of California, Berkeley.

>                             All rights reserved.


>    Copying is permitted for noncommercial use by computerized bulletin

>    board/conference systems, individual scholars, and libraries.

>    Libraries are authorized to add the journal to their collections at no

>    cost. This message must appear on copied material. All commercial use

>    requires permission from the editor. All product names are trademarks

>    or registered trade marks of their respective holders. Mention of a

>    product in this publication does not necessarily imply endorsement of

>    the product. To subscribe to the Current Cites distribution list, send

>    the message "sub cites [your name]" to

>, replacing "[your name]" with your

>    name. To unsubscribe, send the message "unsub cites" to the same

>    address. Editor: Teri Andrews Rinne, trinne@library.





Date:         Mon, 18 Oct 1999 15:30:11 -0400

Sender: "ASIS-L: American Society for Information Science"


From: Richard Hill <>

Subject:      The October 1999 issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available



The October 1999 issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available at This month's issue

contains six stories, four items for the 'In Brief' column and a

generous selection of 'Clips and Pointers'.  The Featured Collection for

the October issue is Molecular Expressions.  Please take time to visit

and enjoy this educational and fun interactive web-based collection on

the topic of optical microscopy.


A few words may be in order regarding two of the six excellent stories

in this month's issue:


1) In the story about reference linking by Herbert Van de Sompel and

Patrick Hochstenbach, there are links to several executable files that

can be downloaded, if you wish.  These files contain screencams, and

because some of these files are quite large (13 MB - 52 MB), the authors

have provided a notation containing the size of each file beside the

link to it.  Please note that there is no audio with any of the



2) Diann Rusch-Feja and Uta Siebeky have written a story about their

evaluation of usage and acceptance of electronic journals that

summarizes a very detailed report -- also published in this issue -- to

which readers may link from within the summarized version.  Please look

for the link, 'Full Report' at the end of the second paragraph of their

story, or go directly to


Stories in the October 1999 issue of D-Lib Magazine include:


Digital Image Distribution: A Study of Costs and Uses

Howard Besser, University of California, Los Angeles


Reference linking in a hybrid library environment. Part 3: Generalizing

the SFX solution in the "SFX@Ghent & SFX@LANL" experiment

Herbert Van de Sompel, Los Alamos National Library and Patrick

Hochstenbach, University of Ghent


Semantic Research for Digital Libraries

Hsinchun Chen, University of Arizona


Multilingual Information Discovery and AccesS (MIDAS)

Douglas Oard, University of Maryland; Carol Peters, Consiglio Nazionale

delle Ricerche; Miguel Ruiz, University of Iowa;  Robert Frederking,

Carnegie Mellon University; Judith Klavans, Columbia University; Páraic

Sheridan, TextWise LLC


Evaluation of Usage and Acceptance of Electronic Journals: Results of an

Electronic Survey of Max Planck Society Researchers including Usage

Statistics from Elsevier, Springer, and Academic Press

Diann Rusch-Feja, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, and Uta

Siebeky, Fritz Habor Institute


The International Summer School on the Digital Library: Experiences and

Plans for the Future

Jola G.B. Prinsen, Ticer B.V., and Hans Geleijnse, Tilburg University







Date:         Thu, 16 Dec 1999 14:46:01 -0500

Sender: "ASIS-L: American Society for Information Science"


From: Richard Hill <>

Subject:      The December 1999 issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available.


[Forwarded.  Note the article "Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property...."

a plenary session at the Annual Meeting.  Dick Hill]




The December 1999 issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available at This month's issue

contains an opinion piece, four stories, six items for the 'In Brief'

column, and a generous selection of 'Clips and Pointers'.  The Featured

Collection for the December issue is Roman History, Coins, and

Technology Back Pages from Jay King at San Jose State University.


The opinion piece is:


Free at Last: The Future of Peer-Reviewed Journals

by Stevan Harnad, University of Southampton


Stories in the December 1999 issue of D-Lib Magazine include:


Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property: Synopsis and Views on the Study

by the National Academies' Committee on Intellectual Property Rights and

the Emerging Information Infrastructure

by Henry M. Gladney, IBM Almaden Research Center


The ERCIM Technical Reference Digital Library: Meeting the Requirements

of a European Community within an International Federation

by Antonella Andreoni, Maria Bruna Baldacci, Stefania Biagioni,

Carlo Carlesi, Donatella Castelli, Pasquale Pagano, Carol Peters, and

Serena Pisani,  Istituto di Elaborzione della Informazione, Consiglio

Nazionale della Ricerche


International Information Gateway Collaboration: Report of the First

IMesh Framework Workshop

by Lorcan Dempsey, Tracy Gardner, and Michael Day UKOLN and Titia van

der Werf, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, National Library of the Netherlands


The Standards Fora for Online Education

by Paul Bacsich, Sheffield Hallam University; Andy Heath, Sheffield

Hallam University and Open University; Paul Lefrere, Open University;

Paul Miller, UKOLN; and Kevin Riley Fretwell-Downing Education


And the six brief items are:


Networked Delivery of Moving Images: The Imagination/Universities

Network Pilot Project

by Catherine Owen, University of Glasgow


New Site Established for Major Scientific Electronic Archive

by Martin Blume, American Physical Society


The Resource Discovery Network

by Lorcan Dempsey University of Bath and Gillian Austen, JISC Assist


The Frye Leadership Institute

by Susan Rosenblatt, Frye Leadership Institute


New Discussion List for Electronic Collection Managers: e-collections

by Alicia Wise, King's College London


Preserving Access to Digital Information

by Hilary Berthon, National Library of Australia




MARCH 2000



Date: Thu, 16 Mar 2000 10:07:14 -0500

From: Richard Hill <>


Subject: ASIS-L: The March 2000 Issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available.




The March 2000 issue of D-Lib Magazine is now

available.  The table of contents is at This month's issue

features four stories, seven 'In Brief' items, and a generous selection

of 'Clips and Pointers'.  The Featured Collection for the March issue is

the American Memory Historical Collections from the National Digital



D-Lib has mirror sites at the following locations:


UKOLN: The UK Office for Library and Information Networking, Bath,




The Australian National University Sunsite, Canberra, Australia



State Library of Lower Saxony and the University Library of G=F6ettingen,

G=F6ettingen, Germany



Universidad de Belgrano, Buenos Aires, Argentina



Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan



(If the mirror site closest to you is not displaying the March issue of

D-Lib Magazine at this time, please check back later.  There is a delay

between the time of the magazine is released in the United States and

the time when the mirroring process has been completed.)


The stories in the March 2000 issue of D-Lib Magazine are:



Search Middleware and the Simple Digital Library Interoperability


 Andreas Paepcke, Stanford University; Robert Brandriff, California

Digital Library; Greg Janee, University of California at Santa Barbara;

Ray Larson, University of California at Berkeley; Bertram Ludaescher,

San Diego Supercomputer Center; Sergey Melnik and Sriram Raghavan,

Stanford University


Meeting the Challenge of Film Research in the Electronic Age

 Catherine Owen, Tony Pearson, and Stephen Arnold, Performing Arts Data

Service, University of Glasgow


Collection-Based Persistent Digital Archives - Part 1

 Reagan Moore, Chaitan Baru, Arcot Rajasekar, Bertram Ludascher, Richard

Marciano, Michael Wan, Wayne Schroeder, and Amarnath Gupta, San Diego

Supercomputer Center


The Virtual Union Catalog: A Comparative Study

 Karen Coyle, California Digital Library


The 'In Brief' items are:


New Millennium, New SOSIG

 Justine Kitchen, Resource Discovery Network Centre


XMLMARC Conversion Software Released

 Dick R. Miller, Stanford University


Oxord English Dictionary Goes Online

 Juliet New, Oxford English Dictionary


New Media Scholarship

 Steven Totosy, University of Alberta


ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries

 Nabil R. Adam, Rutgers University


JISC Content Developments

 Alicia Wise, King's College London


The Art Museum Image Consortium (AMICO) Announces Three New Members for

Start of the New Year

 Kelly Richmond, AMICO


This month, we have also made the D-Lib Magazine Author Guidelines

publicly available.  You will find a link to the Guidelines on the Table

of Contents page.


Bonnie Wilson

Managing Editor

D-Lib Magazine









Date:         Wed, 12 Jan 2000 12:24:26 -0000

Reply-To:     Brian Kelly <>

Sender:       International Federation of Library Associations mailing list              <IFLA-L@INFOSERV.NLC-BNC.CA>

Subject:      Exploit Interactive issue 4 is now available


Exploit Interactive issue 4 is now available at the URL:


Exploit Interactive is a web magazine, funded by the European

Commission's Telematics for Libraries programme.


This issue contains a number of interesting articles on the theme of

"New Services for the New Millennium", including special feature


from Bernard Smith, head of the Cultural Heritage Applications Unit in


European Commission, and Steve Coffman, Director of FYI, County of Los

Angeles Public Library on Building Europe's Largest Library.


There are also articles on several Telematics for Libraries projects,

news on CULTIVATE-EU (a Fifth Framework project), conference reports,



Issue 4 has undergone a technical upgrade.  As well as enhancements to

the user interface, we also have enhanced the search interface, provide

a notification service of new issues and have a single page for printing

all articles in the new issue and for browsing all articles in the

current and previous issues.


Issue 5 is due out in April 2000. Please send email to if you would like to contribute or have any

comments on the new issue.




Brian Kelly


Brian Kelly, UK Web Focus

UKOLN, University of Bath, BATH, England, BA2 7AY

Email:     URL:


Phone:  01225 323943            FAX:   01225 826838





Date: Mon, 20 Dec 1999 12:50:50 +0100


Subject: Re: "Distance Learning: Current Trends, Future Impact" Publication

From: Theresa Stanton <>



Announcement: Special Issue of the FID Review on:

"Distance Education: Current Impact, Future Trends"

now available!


(please excuse cross-posting)


Dear information colleagues,


I am delighted to inform you that a special double issue of the

membership journal of the International Federation for Information and

Documentation (FID) - the FID Review - on the theme "Distance Education:

Current Impact, Future Trends" is now available. The Guest Editor of the

issue is Professor Olugbemiro Jegede of the Open University of Hong Kong

and the issue contains 158 pages of 28 peer-reviewed papers, including

(among others):

- The Developing World and the Future of Open and Distance Education by

Professor S.W. Tam of the Open University of Hong Kong;

- A Look to the Future by Sir John Daniel, Vice Chancellor, Open

University, UK;

- The Notion of a "Classroom" and the necessary infrastructure to

support Distance Education in the Future by Molly Corbett Broad,

President, The University of North Carolina, USA and ICDE;

- Distance Education: Current Impact, Future Trends - A View by

Professor Gajaraj Dhanarajan, President and CEO, The Commonwealth of

Learning (COL), Canada;

- Library and Information Science Distance Education in India: Problems

and Prospects by Dr Jagtar Singh of Panjabi University, India

- Key Concepts in the Association of College and Research Libraries

(ACRL) Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services by Harvey Gover

and Jean Caspers, USA

- Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, and the Use of Technology in Open and

Distance Learning by Olugbemiro Jegede, OU of Hong Kong;

- Community Learning Networks: using Technology to enable lifelong

learning by Stan Skrzeszewski, President of the Canadian Library


- What's New in the Education World? Developments in Online Learning by

Paul Turnbull, Director, Ashridge Online, UK;

- Distance Education in the Caribbean: past, present and future by

Elizabeth Watson and Christine Marrett, University of the West Indies;

- A Glimpse into the Future of Distance Education in Africa by Gbolagade

Adekanmbi, University of Botswana;

- Tertiary Distance Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: current status and

future trends, by Judith M. Roberts and Joan Howard, Canada;

- Can Teaching in a Virtual Classroom Enhance Real Learning? P. Taylor

et al., Curtin University, Australia;

- Building and Using Telepresence Classrooms by Sally Reynolds and Gee

Cammaert, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium; and,

- Online Class in Library Studies links Native Communities by Amy Stout,

Distance Learning Consultant, USA...

plus an article by Lishan Adam of the Economic Commission for Africa on

"Connectivity and Access for Scientific Communication and Publishing in

Africa" in our regular "Electronic Communications and Networking Column"


Details of the "First Conference on Research in Distance and Adult

Learning in Asia", 21-24 June, 2000, The Open University of Hong Kong,

( are also included in the issue.


One copy of this double issue costs NLG 120 (approximately 65 US

dollars). Should you wish to obtain more information about the issue, or

order a copy directly, please send an email to Theresa Stanton, Editor,

FID Review at:

email: (Special discount rates are available for

bulk orders).




The International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID) is

recognized as a leader among international, non-governmental,

not-for-profit organizations concerned with information and

documentation activities world wide. Founded in 1895 as the Institut

International de Bibliographie, FID now has institutional and personal

members in more than 75 countries. For more information, visit: / FID, P.O. Box 90402, 2509 LK The Hague, Netherlands.






Date: Tue, 21 Dec 1999 14:34:56 +0100 (MET)

Subject: GreyNet Newsletter, Volume 8, Number 4 1999





                    WE                       N e w s B r i e f N e w s

                   WISH                      Volume 8, Number 4, 1999

                  YOU A..                    ISSN 1389-1812 

                Bonne Annee                  Electronic Version

               Gott nytt ar

              HAPPY NEW YEAR

             Felice Anno Nuovo

            Gelukkig  Nieuwjaar

           Prospero  Ano  Nuevo

          Gluckliches Neues Jahr




              2 * 0 * 0 * 0




CONTENTS:                                                  COLUMN:


 Link Managers for Grey Literature . . . . . . . . . . . .    1

 GL'99 Questionnaire Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    2

 SIG Report on Copyright and Grey Literature . . . . . . .    3

 Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    4

 Your New Website Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    5

 First Time GreyNet Membership Offer . . . . . . . . . . .    6






 GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

 Koninginneweg 201, 1075 CR Amsterdam, The Netherlands

 Tel/Fax: 31-20-671.1818














Call for Papers,

Special issue October 2000


Date: Fri, 03 Mar 2000 09:51:56 -0500

From: Amanda Spink <>


Subject: ASIS-L: [Fwd: Special issue of Information Research]


A special issue of Information Research on "Web Research" is scheduled

for publication in October.  The issue will be edited by Dr. Amanda

Spink - The Pennsylvania State University (Regional Editor for North

America) and Dr. Dietmar Wolfram from the University of



Anyone interested in submitting a paper should contact Dr.

Spink( or Dr. Wolfram ( as soon

as possible, with a view to submitting a final version of their paper by

1st June 2000.


Information Research can be found at:


Professor Tom Wilson

Editor, Information Research



Volume 5 No 4 – Call for papers


Return-path: <>

From: "Professor Tom Wilson" <>

Date: Tue, 28 Mar 2000 17:41:46 +0100



First my usual Call for Papers for the next issue of the  journal, which will be Volume 5 Number 4. That issue will appear  in July and papers (refereed or working) should be sent to our  Regional Editors or to myself, following the  {HYPERLINK " s/infres/author1.html"}Instructions to Authors.

Note also that we now have an international  {HYPERLINK " .html"}Editorial Board and if one of the people on the Board is  close to you, contact him or her about submitting a paper. We  are willing, of course, to consider papers from anywhere in the  world, not simply those from the regions indicated. I act as  General Editor and will accept submissions from Western Europe,  the Middle and Far East, and Australasia.



Another issue, April 2001


April 2001 will be on aspects of intellectual

property in the digital age and will be edited by Prof. Charles

Oppenheim of the University of Loughborough.


If you are interested in submitting a paper, please contact

Charles - his e-mail address is:



Vol 5, No 1.



To: "Inf Res List" <>,

Date: Wed, 20 Oct 1999 17:06:34 +0100

Subject: New issue of Information Research

Reply-to: Prof. Tom Wilson <>


A new issue of Information Research (vol 5. no. 1) is now available at:


Here is the....



Once again, we have one Refereed Paper in this issue - by  Christopher Brown-Syed and William Morrissey of Wayne State  University, and deals with predicting the relevance of Newsgroup  documents from the analysis of the headers. The conclusion is  that "...a document's scores on use of appropriate technical  language, the tendency of its contents to reflect the stated  subject of discussion, and therefore its "usefulness", are  inversely proportionate to the number of lines contained  therein, and to the number of groups to which the document has  been cross posted." In other words, useful documents are those  that use appropriate technical language (in philosophy in this  case), are posted to fewer newsgroups and are brief.

We then have four, very different, Working Papers:

Information science in sustainable development and de- industrialization, by Amanda Spink, which points out that  "...despite the growing interdisciplinary literature on  sustainable development and de-industrialization, the  informational aspects of these important issues have yet to be  fully explored";


Gender and learning attitudes in using Web-based science  lessons, by Siew Chee Leong and Suliman Al-Hawamdeh, a study in  Singapore which found that, "Generally, boys spent more time  with computers at home playing games and had more experience  using the World Wide Web compared to girls. On the other hand,  more girls preferred the Web-based lesson compared to  traditional classroom-based lessons. They learnt more from  paired-group work and preferred to work with a partner while  boys preferred working alone and learned less working with a  partner. The study also found that unlike girls, boys disliked  reading from computer screens because they had difficulty  reading long pages of text.";


"Information Seeking in Context" and the development of  information systems, by Irina Gaslikova, a paper by an attendee  at the ISIC98 conference who explores this relationship; and


"Experiencing information seeking and learning: a study of the  interaction between two phenomena, by Louise Limberg, which  employs  {HYPERLINK ""}phenomenography  in identifying how information was used by high-school pupils.


Since the 1st April 1998, we have had (by 19th October 1999)  27,882 'hits' on the 'cover page' of the journal - an average of  more than 1,400 a month. Those hits come from 114 Internet  domains: the domains from which most usage comes are:

1. United Kingdom 5087 (hits) 18.24%

2. US Commercial 3278 (hits)11.76%

3. US Educational 2888 (hits) 10.36%

4. Network 2435 (hits) 8.73%

5. Australia 1060 (hits) 3.80%

6. Hong Kong 680 (hits) 2.44%

7. Germany 614 (hits) 2.20%

8. Canada 597 (hits) 2.14%

9. Malaysia 460 (hits) 1.65%

10. Singapore 336 (hits) 1.21%

We also have 701 registered readers from all over the world and  this, perhaps, is a better indicator of readership than hits,  although the fact that readers do not have to register suggests  that there may be many regular readers who do not bother to  register. Perhaps we'll get round, one of these days, to asking  everyone to register before they use the journal -  {HYPERLINK "mailto:"}any views on that?

Remember that, although we now have Regional Editors, we are  willing to consider papers from anywhere in the world, not  simply those from the regions indicated. I act as General Editor  and will accept submissions from Western Europe, the Middle and  Far East, and Australasia.




volume 5 no 2



Date: Thu, 20 Jan 2000 10:51:15 -0000

Subject: New issue of Information Research

Reply-to: Prof. Tom Wilson <>



First my usual Call for Papers for the next issue of the  journal, which will be Volume 5 Number 3. That issue will appear  in April and papers (refereed or working) should be sent to our  Regional Editors or to myself, following the  {HYPERLINK " s/infres/author1.html"}Instructions to Authors.

Note also that we are now well on the way to putting together a  large, international  {HYPERLINK " .html"}Editorial Board and if one of the people on the Board is  close to you, contact him or her about submitting a paper.


This issue carries a new feature - links to dissertations  produced as part of an electronic dissertations experiment in  the Department of Information Studies at the University of  Sheffield. There are three dissertations in the "Electronic  Dissertations Library" and discussions will be held shortly in  the Department with a view to determining how far (and how) to  pursue this idea. There are clear benefits in making the work  more widely available but the process is by no means trouble- free. We will be very pleased to use this part of the journal  for links to electronic dissertations in the field from other  places. Given the global readership of the journal, it might  well be reasonable to include electronic dissertations in  languages other than English. Contact the  {HYPERLINK ""}Editor for further  information if you would like to join in this venture.

We have three refereed papers in this issue: unusually for  recent issues, two are from Sheffield. First, Peter Willett  discusses how algorithms developed for the processing of textual  databases can be used in the processing of chemical structure  databases, and vice versa; and secondly, Claire Warwick, in a  paper on electronic texts, argues that the English literary  cannon has reasserted itself in electronic form. It traces the  history of print canons and contends that analogous forces are  shaping an electronic canon. She discusses why this question  should concern not only literary critics, but also information  professionals. The third refereed paper is also on the subject  of electronic texts: Mats Dahlström and Mikael Gunnarsson of the  Högskolan i Borås, Sweden, discuss the relationships between  document architecture and library and information science  education and research, arguing that "Digital production and  distribution reframe the ways in which objects and meta-objects  might be construed. The mismatch of traditional library  institutions and systems (where the printed codex book and its  derivatives have been the standard of measurement) and digital  carriers for bodies of text and the different architectures of  these, suggests our great need for new fields of LIS research,  where DA might prove a valuable tool."

Our one Working Paper is from Croatia: the changing  circumstances of countries formerly constrained by the Soviet  system is resulting in the information professions addressing  what are, for them, relatively new issues in professional  education, and Aleksandra Horvat discusses library legislation  and free access to information as new topics in library and  information science education.

We now have more than 770 registered readers from all over the  world and this, perhaps, is a better indicator of readership  than hits, although the fact that readers do not have to  register suggests that there may be many regular readers who do  not bother to register. Perhaps we'll get round, one of these  days, to asking everyone to register before they use the journal  - {HYPERLINK "mailto:"}any views on that?





Volume 5 no 3


From: "Professor Tom Wilson" <>

Date: Tue, 28 Mar 2000 17:41:46 +0100

Subject: New issue of Information Research

Reply-to: Prof. Tom Wilson <>

Priority: normal


The latest issue of Information Research will be generally  advertised on mailing lists at the end of this week. However,  registered readers can access the issue's Contents List at:


Here is the Editorial:


First my usual Call for Papers for the next issue of the  journal, which will be Volume 5 Number 4. That issue will appear  in July and papers (refereed or working) should be sent to our  Regional Editors or to myself, following the  {HYPERLINK " s/infres/author1.html"}Instructions to Authors.

There are two refereed papers in this issue – on diverse topics.  The first, by Alastair Smith of Victoria University, Wellington,  compares the features of search engines attached to a number of  digital libraries, concluding that:

While the eleven digital libraries surveyed provided overall a  wide range of search features, none provided the wide range of  features that traditional on-line services provide. Digital  library designers should consider providing a wider range of  features in future versions of their software.


The second paper, by Les Smith and Hugh Preston is devoted to an  examination of the information management and technology  strategy of the UK's National Health Service, with particular  reference to the management information needs of different  groups within the NHS.

This issue also has four Working Papers – the first, by Turner  and Kendall, explores Internet use in a public library in the  UK. The authors conclude that the results:

...indicate strong support for Internet provision in public  libraries, with reasons given including the friendly, work-like  atmosphere, the presence of trained staff able to offer help and  advice, and the relationship between networked information and  more traditional formats provided by the library. More active  promotion and publicity for the service, more training and  support from library staff, and reduced charges were amongst the  recommendations.


The second Working Paper is a rather unusual item. Twenty years  ago I was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie  Universität, Berlin, to write a paper on trends in user studies  as part of a research project he was directing. Over the years I  gave away my copies of the paper to students and was left  without one. Recently, I was contacted by a graduate student in  the USA asking if a copy was available and I decided to contact  Professor Wersig to see if he had one in his files. Fortunately,  he did and I have scanned that copy for publication here. The  paper advocated qualitative methods to situate the user in  context, and, in recommending action research, proposed reasons  for the low application of research ideas in practice. Readers  may find the piece of some historical interest, at least.

The issue also includes a pointer to the Final Report of the  Uncertainty in information seeking project which was carried out  over the past two years at Sheffield. The Report is  administrative in character and more interesting parts are  included in the Appendices.

Finally, we have two papers from a Doctoral Workshop, which took  place at Åbo Akademii in Finland, earlier this year, and to  which I was invited as an honorary member of a Nordic nation in  my capacity as Visiting Professor at the Högskolan in Borås.  They are: Business information culture: a qualitative study of  the information culture in the Finnish insurance industry, by  Gunilla Widén-Wulff, and The impact of personality and  approaches to learning on information behaviour, by Jannica  Heinström. I believe that it is important to encourage doctoral  students to publish early and I hope that the appearance here  will encourage students to come forward with Working Papers or,  indeed, papers for review. Perhaps supervisors and advisors of  doctoral students might also help us to achieve this aim.

For this issue I have left the links to the electronic  dissertations on the Contents page. This feature has attracted a  great deal of interest from around the world and I hope to have  links to electronic dissertations in other places before long.  The demand is evidently high: the home page for the electronic  dissertations 'library' has received more than 300 hits since  January and two of the three dissertations have also had more  than 300 hits. The third dissertation lacked a counter until  recently, through a production oversight, and, consequently,  shows a much lower number of hits.

We now have about 850 registered readers from all over the world  and this, perhaps, is a better indicator of readership than  hits, although the fact that readers do not have to register  suggests that there may be many regular readers who do not  bother to register.

Readers may like to note that the October issue will be a  special issue on Web research, edited by Dr. Amanda Spink of  Pennsylvania State University, while in April 2001 (time flies  for a journal Editor!) Professor Charles Oppenheim will produce  an issue on intellectual property in the digital age. We also  have plans for another special issue - possibly for January 2001  - on knowledge representation and ontology. More on that in a  future e-mail message to our 'registered readers'.

Note also that we now have an international  {HYPERLINK " .html"}Editorial Board and if one of the people on the Board is  close to you, contact him or her about submitting a paper. We  are willing, of course, to consider papers from anywhere in the  world, not simply those from the regions indicated. I act as  General Editor and will accept submissions from Western Europe,  the Middle and Far East, and Australasia.







Special Issue


Date: Sat, 04 Mar 2000 15:06:58 -0500

From: Amanda Spink <>


Subject: ASIS-L: Informing Science Journal: Information Science Research Special



I am please to announce that a special issue of Informing Science: The

International Journal of an

Emerging Transdiscipline is available on the web. Dr. Amanda Spink

served as editor of this issue.

Information about the journal is at the bottom of this email.


The following articles are in this special issue on Information Science



Overview of this Informing Science Special Issue on Information Science


Amanda Spink, The Pennsylvania State University\Vol3\indexv3n2.htm


The papers in this Special Issue of Informing Science highlight research

areas in the interdisciplinary field of Information Science. Key

research problems for Information Science include: (1) how to model and

effectively support human information behaviors, including information

seeking and use behaviors, and interaction with information retrieval

(IR) technologies, (2) how information should be organized

intellectually in IR technologies for more effective human information

retrieval, and (3) the organizational,social and policy implications for

the information society of human information behaviors.

Information Scientists are concerned with how people's information

problems can be resolved. In this way, information science is an

important part of the "informing sciences". Information Science has

largely borrowed theories and approaches from other disciplines - but is

now attracting attention from other disciplines as a generator of theory

and models that delineate key areas of human information-related

endeavors. As humans struggle to seek and use information within the

plethora of information sources increasingly available via the Web,

Information Science research is taking center stage. Each paper in this

special issue is written by an expert in their area of Information

Science research.


Human Information Behavior

T.D. Wilson, University of Sheffield\Vol3\indexv3n2.htm

This paper provides a history and overview of the field of human

information behavior, including

recent advances in the field and multidisciplinary perspectives.


Interactive Information Retrieval: Context and Basic Notions

David Robins, Louisiana State University\Vol3\indexv3n2.htm

This paper provides an introduction to interactive information

retrieval--the study of human interaction with information retrieval

systems. Interactive information retrieval may be contrasted with the

"system-centered" view of information retrieval in which changes to

information retrieval system variables are manipulated in isolation from

users in laboratory situations. The paper elucidates current models of

interactive information retrieval, namely, the episodic model, the

stratified model, the interactive feedback and search process model, and

the global model of polyrepresentation. Future directions for research

in the field are discussed.


Image Information Retrieval: An Overview of Current Research

Abby A. Goodrum, Drexel University\Vol3\indexv3n2.htm

This paper provides an overview of current research in image information

retrieval and provides an outline of areas for future research. The

approach is broad and interdisciplinary and focuses on three aspects of

image research (IR):text-based retrieval, content-based retrieval, and

user interactions with image information retrieval systems. The review

concludes with a call for image retrieval evaluation studies similar to



Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

Howard Greisdorf, University of North Texas\Vol3\indexv3n2.htm

Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of

information science for evaluating

information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by

interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to

on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the

nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory

view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent

avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of

relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information



Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Science

Amanda Spink, The Pennsylvania State University\Vol3\indexv3n2.htm

Information Science is beginning to develop a theoretical framework for

the modeling of users=92 interactions with information retrieval

(IR)technologies within the more holistic context of human information

behavior (Spink, 1998b). This paper addresses the following questions:

(1) What is the nature of Information Science? and (2) What theoretical

framework and model is most appropriate for Information Science? This

paper proposes a theoretical framework for Information Science based on

an explication of the processes of human information coordinating

behavior and information feedback that facilitate the

relationship between human information behavior and human interaction

with information retrieval

(IR) technologies (Web, digital libraries, etc.).


Applications Of Informetrics To Information Retrieval Research

Dietmar Wolfram, University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee\Vol3\indexv3n2.htm

A non-technical overview of two primary areas of study within the

discipline of information science, information retrieval(IR)and

informetrics, is presented. Informetric properties of IR systems as the

basis for understanding IR system structure and generalizing human

information seeking in electronic environments are discussed.

Applications of informetric study of IR systems for more efficient and

effective design and evaluation of IR systems are also presented.


Representation and Organization of Information in the Web Space: From


Jian Qin, Syracuse University\Vol3\indexv3n2.htm

Representing and organizing information in libraries has a long

tradition of using rules and standards. As the very first standard

encoding format for bibliographic data in libraries, Machine Readable

Cataloging (MARC) format is being joined by a large number of new

formats since the late 1980s. The new formats, mostly SGML/HTML based,

are actively taking a role in representing and organizing networked

information resources. This article briefly describes the historical

connection between MARC and the newer formats for

representing information and the current development in XML applications

that will benefit information/

knowledge management in the new environment.


Social Informatics in the Information Sciences: Current Activities and

Emerging Directions

Steve Sawyer, Pennsylvania State University & Howard Rosenbaum, Indiana


Social informatics refers to the interdisciplinary study of the design,

uses and consequences of

information and communication technologies (ICTs)that takes into account

their interactions with

institutional and cultural contexts. Social informatics research may be

done at group, departmental, organizational, national and/or societal

levels of analysis, focused on the relationships among information,

information systems, the people who use them and the context of use. In

this paper we outline some of the central principles of a social

informatics perspective. In doing this we provide an overview

of the intellectual geography of social informatics relative to work in

the information sciences and discuss the contributions that this

perspective and literature provide.



The journal Informing Science endeavors to provide an understanding of

the complexities in informing

clientele. Fields from information systems, information science,

journalism in all its forms to

education all contribute to this science. These fields, which developed

independently and have been researched in separate disciplines, are

evolving to form a new transdiscipline, Informing Science.


Informing Science publishes articles that provide insight into how best

to inform clients using

information technology. Authors may use epistemologies from engineering,

computer science, education, psychology, business, anthropology, and

such. The ideal paper will serve to inform fellow researchers, perhaps

from other fields, of contributions to this problem.


Accepted papers are published quarterly in print and immediately on the

web. The latter provides colleagues around the world immediate access to

articles. Works published in Informing Science can

be cited and used more quickly. Accepted articles are available free of

charge on the web site . Issues are also available in

print. I encourage you to visit this web site and contribute your

quality manuscripts to the journal.




Informing Science








Call for papers:


To: "Natural Resources Librarians List" <>

Subject: FYI: Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship call for papers

Date: Thu, 9 Mar 2000 12:40:16 -0500 (EST)


---------- Forwarded message ----------

Date: Thu, 9 Mar 2000 11:59:37 -0500

From: STS list moderator <>

Reply-To: Andrea Duda <>


Subject: Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship call for papers


Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship (ISTL) is an electronic

publication of the Science and Technology Section of the Association of

College and Research Libraries. It is available on the World Wide

Web at


We invite your proposals or abstracts for our Spring 2000 issue on Earth

Day and environmental issues in libraries.  How green is your

library?  Have you done something special with environmental impact

reports?  Do you have an archive relating to an environmental issue?  How

do you teach students to do research in this multidisciplinary area?


Proposals can be sent now with the final articles due in April.


We are also accepting proposals for our Summer 2000 issue (all topics) and

Fall 2000 (instruction in science and technology libraries).


ISTL's editorial guidelines are available at


Please send an abstract of your proposed article to

for consideration by the ISTL editorial board.




Andrea L. Duda

Sciences Collections Coordinator

Davidson Library

University of California, Santa Barbara











Date:         Thu, 18 Nov 1999 07:52:26 -0500

Sender: "STS-L (Science and Technology Section, ACRL)"


Subject:      Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship

From: Andrea Duda <>



 Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship

 Fall 1999

 Theme:  Staffing issues in sci-tech libraries



In this issue:




   Learning Our Limits: The Science Libraries at Duke University Retreat

   to Respond to Our Changing Environment

     by Anne Langley and Linda Martinez, Duke University


   An Analysis of Science-Engineering Academic Library Positions in the

   Last Three Decades

      by Nestor Osorio, Northern Illinois University


   Scientific Literacy Skills for Non-Science Librarians: Bootstrap


     by Christina Peterson and Sandra Kajiwara, San Jose State University


   Integrating Science and Technology Libraries at Cornell

     by Jean A. Poland, Cornell University


   Library Staffing Considerations in the Age of Technology: Basic

   Elements for Managing Change

     by Daryl C. Youngman, Kansas State University





   Inventing the Internet by Janet Abbate

     Reviewed by Jeff Alger, Kansas State University





   Review of ASCE Online

     Reviewed by John Matylonek, Oregon State University


   BiblioNet Database Review

     Reviewed by Ian Gordon, Brock University


   Electronic Green Journal

     Reviewed by Bill Johnson, Arizona State University East





   Report from the Geological Society of America Conference and Geoscience

   Information Society Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, October 24-28,


     by Kay G. Johnson, University of Tennessee, Knoxville


   Grey Literature '99, October 4-5, 1999

     by Patricia T. Viele, Cornell University


   OnlineWorld '99, Chicago, October 25-27, 1999

     by Flora Shrode, University of Tennessee, Knoxville


   IAMSLIC 25th Anniversary Conference, 1999

     by James W. Markham, University of California, Santa Barbara


   How Green Is My Library? New York Library Association 1999 Annual

   Conference, October 27-31, 1999, Buffalo, NY

     by Frederick W. Stoss, SUNY University at Buffalo







Date:         Tue, 16 Nov 1999 10:14:36 -0500

Sender: "ASIS-L: American Society for Information Science"


From: Richard Hill <>

Subject:      JASIS Vol 50, #14 TOC - Perspectives on Copyright


Journal of the American Society for Information Science




[Note: below are URLs for viewing contents of JASIS from past issues.

Below the contents of Bert Boyce's "In This Issue" has been cut into the

Table of Contents as well as material from the introduction to the

"Perspectives" section from Kenneth Crews.]








    In This Issue

   Bert R. Boyce


    In this issue, the Perspectives articles are introduced by the guest

editor. Here we cover the three research papers included. They are quite

diverse and include a statistical language study, a historical look at

indirect referencing, and a user study of relevance criteria. We begin with

the relevance study by Hirsh.




    Children's Relevance Criteria and Information Seeking on Electronic


   Sandra G. Hirsh


   Ten fifth-grade students were randomly selected from a class required to

find three sources of information on a sports figure for a class report.

They were interviewed after selection of a figure and during their

research, which was conducted at home and in both the school and public

libraries. They were also observed carrying out searches on the school's

computers. Students were asked what they were doing and why. A second

interview was carried out during the third week of the

information-gathering process. Results are an analysis of field notes and

transcripts of recordings. Students were able to articulate their relevance

criteria and used titles, notes fields, abstracts, Internet summaries, and

skimming techniques to evaluate the initial relevance of material

retrieved. Topicality is the prime criterion in textual material. Novelty

accounted for 15% of the decisions, authority for only 2%. Being

interesting was the prime criteria for graphic material, and accounted for

10% of textual decisions. Peer interest was also a noticeable criteria at

7% for text and 10% for graphics. The use of topicality as a criteria early

in the process gives way somewhat to the interesting criteria in the second



    Indirect-Collective Referencing (ICR): Life Course, Nature, and

Importance of a Special Kind of Scientific Referencing

   Endre Szava-Kovats


   A longitudinal sample was utilized by Szava-Kovats to review 100 years

of The Physical Review, yielding 4,200 papers and 84,000 formal references.

If such references contain phrases like ``and references cited therein,''

or ``and references therein,'' they are considered to be instances of

Indirect-collective referencing (ICR). A separate review of early issues

shows a possible occurrence in 1897, but the first clear occurrence in

1901. The IRC phenomena grows steadily over the century and faster than the

growth of papers themselves. From a recent issue, 4 of 19 papers exhibiting

ICR were chosen and traced. The number of occurrences is 40% larger than

the total references normally available for citation indexing.


    Computer and Natural Language Texts--A Comparison Based on Long-Range


   Peter Kokol, Vili Podgorelec, Milan Zorman, Tatjana Kokol,

  and Tatjana Njivar


   Long-range correlation (LRC) is based upon a generalization of entropy.

The power, alpha, of the distance between two points on the x-axis in a

random walk model, characterizes the differences between texts. Using 20

works each in English, German, and Slovenian, and 20 computer programs in

each of C++, Pascal, and FORTRAN, Kokol, Podgorelec, Zorman, Kokol, and

Njivar find mean values of alpha for the texts to be close to 0.5, but the

mean values for the programming languages are significantly higher. The

long-range power law appears to apply to both.




[From the acknowledgment: I also extend my thanks to Lois Lunin and her

colleagues at John Wiley & Sons, Inc. They expressed an early interest in

publishing these essays, continued to push us when the project needed

additional motivation, and they kindly cooperated in permitting the authors

to enter into a most extraordinary agreement for these essays. The

fundamental objective of these essays is to assist decision makers at

libraries and educational institutions throughout the country, who may be

struggling with the question of whether the CONFU guidelines on fair use

may be appropriate standards for local policies and practices. We hope that

these essays will assist with those decisions, and promote discussion of

these issues. To that end, the agreement with John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

allows the publisher to retain the copyright to these works, but this

published version includes the statement that they may be reproduced and

distributed by nonprofit educational institutions and libraries. We hope

that this permission will allow the articles to be widely shared at

colleges and universities and at libraries to increase awareness of

copyright and to help those institutions make more informed decisions with

respect to fair use.]


    Introduction and Overview

   Kenneth D. Crews


    The articles in this collection grew out of a series of presentations

delivered in April 1997 at a ``Town Meeting on Fair Use, Education, and

Libraries'' held on the campus of Indiana University-Purdue University

Indianapolis. That event was one of a series of Town Meetings convened

around the country to discuss the development of ``fair-use guidelines'' by

the Conference on Fair Use (CONFU).    The need for debate about the

meaning of fair use and the appropriateness of fair-use guidelines was

vividly clear at the Town Meeting, and is demonstrated repeatedly in this

collection of essays.

   Because these articles are based on conference presentations, they often

bridge the gap between the formality of a published study and the

informality of the original presentations in a relaxed setting open to

broad-based discussion and debate. Frequent readers of JASIS will be struck

by the lack of scientific analysis present in these articles.

   Much of the debate over copyright law and its implications is too often

based on experiential evidence, anecdotes, and individual perceptions of

the relationship between the law and organizational objectives. These

articles and all of the CONFU negotiations are unquestionably built on such

``unscientific'' processes rather than empirical studies of causal

relationships. These articles, therefore, reveal, for better or for worse,

that much of the debate over copyright is not yet in the realm of

scientific inquiry. These articles also reveal a wealth of opportunity for

future research questions.


    CONFU-sed: Security, Safe Harbors, and Fair-Use Guidelines

   Dwayne K. Buttler


        The first essay by Buttler (1999) examines the foundation of fair-use law

and early fair-use guidelines. It also explores the origins of the

Conference on Fair Use, and the call to build on the past with an

understanding of fair use for newer technologies.  At the time of the Town

Meeting, in April 1997, the direction of CONFU was taking clear shape, and

the participants understood well the nature of the forthcoming guidelines

that would appear in a CONFU report later that year (CONFU, 1997). Indeed,

events had become sufficiently crystallized that the ``final'' CONFU Report

(CONFU, 1998) includes guidelines that differ little from the proposed

guidelines that were debated in early 1997.


    What's Right About Fair-Use Guidelines for the Academic Community?

   Mary Levering


   Levering urges the academic community to experiment with the guidelines

and give them a chance, rather than rejecting them before implementation.


    What's Wrong With Fair-Use Guidelines for the Academic Community?

   Kenneth Frazier


 Frazier makes clear that he does not oppose all possible guidelines, but

he articulates serious concerns about the interpretations of fair use that

emerged from the CONFU process.


[The next four essays articulate views about various guidelines on the

subjects of multimedia development, the making and archiving of digital

images, transmissions of material in distance learning, electronic-reserve

systems, and interlibrary loans. Of all the CONFU guidelines, the

multimedia guidelines probably have received the greatest attention,

including the strongest statements of support as well as the most

vociferous criticism.]


    The Multimedia Guidelines

   Joann Stevens


Stevens (1999) describes events leading to development of those guidelines,

and identifies how they may be useful in the academic community.


    Testing the Limits: The CONFU Digital-Images and Multimedia Guidelines

and Their

Consequences for Libraries and Educators

   Christine L. Sundt


 Sundt (1999), however, takes those guidelines and the digital-images

guidelines to task, focusing on their legal and practical questionability.

She further explores complex questions surrounding the identification of

copyright owners and securing permissions once a user reaches the limits of

fair use for digital images. Under the proposed guidelines, Sundt points

out that users will readily hit those limits, particularly as the

guidelines establish rigorous time limits on use and require permission for

any repeat uses of images.


    Guidelines for Distance Learning and Interlibrary Loan: Doomed and More


   Laura N. Gasaway


[See below.]


    Electronic Reserves and Fair Use: The Outer Limits of CONFU

   Kenneth D. Crews


   Gasaway (1999) and Crews (1999) take an insider's look at negotiations

surrounding possible guidelines for distance learning, interlibrary loan,

and electronic reserves. These activities have several common traits. They

are of tremendous importance to librarianship, education, and research.

These activities are also of growing importance and frequent occurrence at

colleges and universities around the country. Moreover, although these

activities may change with the application of new technologies,

particularly the use of computer networks and transmissions, they are also

based on long-standing practices and expectations about the legal

underpinnings of earlier technology. In particular, struggles with new

technologies may be predicated on experiences with photocopies for library

reserves and television transmissions for distance learning.

   Gasaway and Crews reveal that negotiations with respect to these issues

ultimately collapsed and failed to produce guidelines that received

consensus support at CONFU meetings. The inability of CONFU to generate

guidelines for these important issues demonstrates the limits of the

unstructured negotiations in CONFU and the inability of negotiated

guidelines to achieve broad support when the issue is of central importance

both to the academic community and to the commercial publishing community.


    The Economics of Publishing: The Consequences of Library and Research


   Colin Day


        Day (1999) is the director of a large university press, and he emphasizes

the importance of copyright protection for the survivability of scholarly

publishing, and he cautions about the adverse consequences of a broad

interpretation of fair use.


    The Immunity Dilemma: Are State Colleges and Universities Still Liable

for Copyright Infringements?

   Kenneth D. Crews and Georgia K. Harper


        Crews and Harper (1999) reflect on the practical and legal meaning of a

series of court rulings that may give limited immunity to state colleges

and universities against copyright infringement claims. That development is

presented here not only as a matter worthy of discussion itself, but also

as an example of the dynamic legal forces that often have extraordinarily

complex effects on policy making and decision making within educational



    Fair-Use Guidelines: A Selected Bibliography

   Noemi A. Rivera-Morales


        Rivera-Morales (1999) has prepared a bibliography of resources for further

information. Her work lists the guidelines from the past and from CONFU.

She includes numerous sources about the guidelines and about the general

copyright issues that the guidelines broach. Her bibliography lists

citations to news coverage about CONFU. Although the press coverage was

hardly plentiful, the occasional articles offer glimpses of the processes

and tensions that underlay the difficult negotiations. As Rivera-Morales

further points out, the literature often lacks systematic reviews and

analyses of the needs of academic users or of the interests of copyright

owners. She emphasizes the need for additional investigations to assess the

extent to which fair-use guidelines meet their objectives and serve the

interests of proponents.












The ASIS home page <>

contains the Table of Contents and brief abstracts as above from January

1993 (Volume 44) to date.


The John Wiley Interscience site <>

includes issues from 1986 (Volume 37) to date.  Guests have access only to

tables of contents and abstracts.  Registered users of the Interscience

site have access to the full text of these issues and to preprints.  We are

working on restoring access for ASIS members in the near future.




Date:         Fri, 10 Dec 1999 11:37:59 -0500

Sender: Open Lib/Info Sci Education Forum <>

From: Richard Hill <rhill@ASIS.ORG>

Subject:      TOC  JASIS Volume 50, Number 1




Journal of the American Society for Information Science




[Note: below are URLs for viewing contents of JASIS from past issues.

Below the contents of Bert Boyce's "In This Issue" has been cut into the

Table of Contents as well as material from the introduction to the special







    In This Issue

   Bert R. Boyce




   Guest Editors: David Bearman and Jennifer Trant


    Introduction: When Museum Informatics Meets the World Wide Web, It

Generates Energy

   David Bearman and Jennifer Trant


        Application domains both adapt technologies in distinctive ways and

manifest requirements that can propel basic research in novel directions.

Museum informatics is one such domain and its impacts on the World Wide Web

are of both sorts. The half-dozen articles we have selected from the 1999

Museums and the Web Conference for this special issue of JASIS, were

selected because collectively they delineate important concerns of museum

informatics as an application domain, and call for new methods in

information science as a whole.

        Our hope is that in this intersection of museum informatics with JASIS,

play and research will both benefit and that we'll see some results at

future annual Museums and the Web Conferences. [Full texts of other papers

from 1997-1999 presentations can be found on the web at

by following links to mw97, mw98, and mw99.]


    Effective Levels of Adaptation to Different Types of Users in

Interactive Museum Systems

   F. Paterno and C. Mancini


        At its most basic, this concern for the visitor is manifest in the design

of museum spaces. Paterno ask of web design what every museum

exhibition designer faces with every exhibition: Why should each visitor to

an information resource see it in the same way, when their knowledge,

expertise and purposes are so different? Although they arrive by way of a

requirement of museum informatics, the problem they are confronting is

central to the future of e-commerce - if people don't see themselves in

what they find presented to them on the web, and if the responses from the

system are addressed to some one else, they will leave unsatisfied. By

taking the problem in two stages - first creating some test response-types

and allowing visitors to self identify, and then exploring how this model

could be made more complex in the types it presents and in its response to

visitor input, these researchers are providing usable answers, on their way

towards analysis of an exceptionally complex research problem.


    On Pattern-Directed Search of Archives and Collections

   Garett O. Dworman, Steven O. Kimbrough, and Chuck Patch


        Museum information spaces also pose informational challenges. Dworcman,

Kimbrough and Patch expose the limitations of the best developed area of

information science, information retrieval methods, when they ask a

question basic to any "collection" of information: what attributes are

correlated in this collection? In museum informatics this is an obvious

question, as it would be in legal research (with the documents for a court

case) or regulatory enforcement (with the records of a company), but it

requires methods that are until know quite undeveloped in information

science as a whole.


    On-Line Exhibit Design: The Sociotechnological Impact of Building a

Museum over the World Wide Web

   Paul F. Marty


        Day to day tasks in museums are highly visual and information resources

tend to demand more multimedia integration than team tasks in much of the

business world. Marty's application of workflow enhancing information

processing methods to a typical museum situation - planning a

reinstallation of galleries - exposes the challenges of applying technology

solutions to a demanding application domain and demonstrates the likely

benefits such methods will have when applied to other design intensive

business processes. Importantly, Marty recognizes the social informatics of

the situation as well, and can reflect on the impact of these changes in

working methods on the environment in which the work takes place.


    Visiting a Museum Together: How to Share a Visit to a Virtual World

   Paolo Paolini, Thimoty Barbieri, Paolo Loiudice, Francesca Alonzo, Marco

Zanti, and G. Gaia


        Social interaction is the key to learning in the museum. Paolini

take the methods developed for that least real universe of video games and

explore how they could be used to make real human interaction possible in

the world of virtual cultural experiences. Simply by taking the

requirements of museum informatics - interaction with objects and with

people - to the World Wide Web, they have exposed a huge new area for

research and development and begun to delineate requirements for

object-based learning and social interaction that have relevance to other

domains ranging from distance education to future leisure life.



    The Neon Paintbrush: Seeing, Technology, and the Museum as Metaphor

   Peter Walsh


        Museum visits, and museum exhibitions, are about making meanings. Peter

Walsh reminds us that what we see is learned, and it changes as our

expectations change. Through the prism of museum content, artifacts convey

both what they are to us today and what they were to others when they were

first created or discovered. Walsh asks us to examine the way in which

current technology may be changing what we see. The tools of virtuality, no

less than the microscope, take us to a world that is beyond our human

perception, and in so doing transform the reality of the world in which we

live by investing it with a potentiality it previously lacked, and which we

will never again will be without.


    Designing Digital Environments for Art Education/Exploration

   Slavko Milekic


        Sometimes tools get in the way. Were the designers of computers influenced

by the traditional design of museums in making computers so unfriendly?,

asks Slavko Milecik. Could both the interface to the museum and that of the

computer be made accessible to very small children, handicapped individuals

and all of us who would be delighted to replace a keyboard or a mouse with

eye movements and thought? As museum informatics struggles to meet the

challenge to expand audiences and the demands of the Americans with

Disabilities Act, Milekic elevates playfulness to a technological

imperative and explores the consequences.




    Using the Internet for Survey Research: A Case Study

   Yin Zhang


         After reviewing recent surveys conducted on the Web, Zhang lists their

advantages and potential problems. A survey of 201 authors with papers in

press in 8 journals was conducted as a case study. Respondent reactions

were logged and respondents using the web were compared with those using

fax or postal service. 125 useable replies were received via the web and 31

by fax or postal service. Respondents using the web to reply had higher

self perceived ability to use the Internet, used the web more often, were

seven years younger in mean age, but did not differ significantly in years

of Internet experience, web access, or gender. Of the 147 who attempted

access to the web survey 125 finished successfully. Of the 125 successful

respondents, 36% viewed the overall survey results. Sixty percent only

completed the survey, with the remainder looking only at their own

completed results. The non-electronic respondents did not view results.

Recent research shows known item searches to be the prime use of online

public access catalogs.


    Block Addressing Indices for Approximate Text Retrieval

   Ricardo Baeza-Yates and Gonzalo Navarro


        This article looks at the efficiency of a modification of the inverted

file indexing model. In block addressing indexing inverted file entries do

not refer to text position within a particular document but rather to

predefined blocks of text of the document. Space is saved, but block hits

must be scanned sequentially. BaezaYates and Navarro show theoretically,

and confirm experimentally using their methods on TREC databases, that both

space and time considerations in a block index can be sublinear and, thus,

that file growth decreases the relative significance of time and space

considerations for the index.


    Surname Plus Recallable Title Word Searches for Known Items by Scholars

   Frederick G. Kilgour and Barbara B. Moran


        Kilgore and Moran, using the references to eight scholarly monographs

published between 1990 and 1995, requested that their authors highlight

recallable title words. Using surname and first specified word as keys, the

number of authors and titles in the University of Michigan NOTIS- produced

minicat was recorded. If the first search yielded more than 20 lines, a

second word was added if available. When no word was available a NOTIS

limiting field was used to repeat the search on only MARC 100 and 245

fields. A single screen minicat was produced 99% of the time and in 7 of

those 11 searches where a second specified word was not available. Surname

and one keyword searching gives a single screen in over 84% of the cases.



    Communicating Research, by A. J. Meadows

   Christine L. Borgman



    Civic Space/Cyberspace: The American Public Library in the Information

Age, by Redmond Kathleen Molz and Phyllis Dain

   Richard J. Cox




The ASIS home page <> contains the Table of Contents and

brief abstracts as above from January 1993 (Volume 44) to date.


The John Wiley Interscience site <>

includes issues from 1986 (Volume 37) to date.  Guests have access only to

tables of contents and abstracts.  Registered users of the interscience

site have access to the full text of these issues.  We are still working on

restoring access for ASIS members as "registered users."





Volume 51 No 6


Date: Tue, 14 Mar 2000 14:38:29 -0500

From: Richard Hill <>

Subject: ASIS-L: JASIS Volume 51, Number 6 TOC



Journal of the American Society for Information Science




[Note: below the Table of Contents are URLs for viewing contents of JASIS

from past issues.  Into the Table of Contents below, edited contents from

Guest Editors Chaomei Chen, Mary Czerwinski, and Robert Macredie's

introduction has been cut into the Table of Contents, along wiht Bery

Boyce's "In This Issue."]




 In This Issue

 Bert R. Boyce





 Guest Editors: Chaomei Chen, Mary Czerwinski, and Robert Macredie


 Individual Differences in Virtual Environments--Introduction and Overview

 Chaomei Chen, Mary Czerwinski, and Robert Macredie


            In this special issue, we are interested in exploring issues related to

individual differences, especially in terms of how individuals differ in

their abilities to capture, recognize, and make effective use of abstract,

implicit, and changing structures found across many large information

systems and virtual environments. In particular, we hope articles in this

special issue will help us to understand better how to accommodate these

differences. We highlight questions that are likely to make a significant

contribution to the field. Articles in this special issue address some of

these questions in depth. On the other hand, many questions can only be

adequately addressed when a critical mass of users of virtual environments

emerges and virtual environments with substantial content become available.

The four broad questions are:

 1. What are the predominant human factors concerning the design of a

virtual environment?

 2. What is the role of individual differences in the use of a virtual


 3. How do we assess the effectiveness and usability of a virtual reality


 4. How do we account for users' cognitive and behavioral experiences in a

virtual world?

A wide range of specific issues must be addressed in order to answer these


            Five articles included in this special issue address a number of important

aspects of the study of individual differences. A common theme that

underlines all the articles in this issue is how to strike the balance

between individuals' abilities and the demanding task for understanding,

interpreting, and utilizing structural information conveyed through virtual



 Individual Differences and the Conundrums of User-Centered Design: Two


 Bryce Allen


            Allen (1999) focuses on the theme of how to optimize the match between

users and system configurations in order to optimize their search

performance. A key user interface feature in Allen's experiments is a word

map. It is a multidimensional scaling model of 100 most frequently

occurring words in a collection of bibliographic references. In this case,

the intrinsic structure is reflected through the interrelationships in this

bibliographic collection. The word map and a multi-window display are

referred to collectively as design features in his article.

            Allen's article is thought provoking. It demonstrates the power of

theories and methodologies developed in (Egan & Gomez, 1985; Stanney &

Salvendy, 1995; Vicente & Williges, 1988). More importantly, it shows how

one can adapt and apply these theories and methods to the new generation of

systems with greater emphasis on individual differences in virtual

environments. Further work is necessary to clarify why high spatial

individuals were found to perform better without the word map, as in

Allen's experiments, and without the spatial-semantic virtual world, as in

Chen's experiments. An ideal user interface design would not only

compensate for low-spatial users, but also help high-spatial users to

improve their performance.


 Spatial-Semantics: How Users Derive Shape from Information Space

 Andrew Dillon


            The ability to perceive structure in abstract information spaces is

crucial to navigation and search performance. Dillon's article

distinguishes the role of spatial and semantic cues and explains why this

conceptualization may lead to new insights into existing and emerging data.

Dillon also introduces the concept of shape as the structural component of

the working model of an information space. This is most apparent in

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) but is less obvious or

conceptualized in abstract information environments.  Dillon's article

delineates the argument between top-down versus bottom-up approaches with a

range of empirical evidence found in the literature.


 Individual Differences in a Spatial-Semantic Virtual Environment

 Chaomei Chen


            The central theme of the special issue is how individuals differ in their

performance in a virtual environment which requires an in-depth

understanding of its underlying structure.

Chen's article presents two studies of individual differences in searching

through a spatial-semantic virtual environment. Qualitative and

process-oriented studies are therefore called for to reveal the complex

interaction between individuals' cognitive abilities, domain knowledge, and

direct manipulation skills.  A call of an investigation of deeper knowledge

structures is made based on previous studies of similar knowledge-intensive

displays, e.g., (Rewey et al., 1991; Stanney & Salvendy, 1995).


 Cognitive Styles and Virtual Environments

 Nigel Ford


            Nigel Ford's article focuses on the distinction between holists and

serialists in learning, and its implications for supporting individual

users through user interface design.  Of particular interest to the theme

of this special issue, Ford addresses some interesting behavioral patterns

of holists and serialists. While holists like to use concept maps,

serialists prefer keyword indices. A concept map, or the overview of an

underlying structure, is designed for global orientation regarding the

overall structure of the subject matter.

            Having recognized the fuzzy nature of identifying individuals' cognitive

styles and learning strategies, Ford introduces a modeling approach based

on Kohonen self-organizing feature maps, an artificial neural-network based

classification technique. This self-organized approach has potential as a

possible route for further research and development of adaptive virtual

environments. Virtual environments provide a wider framework for

integrating and directly manipulating global and analytic aspects of an

information space.

            Ford's article also draws our attention to the connection between

field-dependence and cognitive styles in terms of individuals' behavioral

patterns in navigation of hyperspace. Like holists, field-dependent

individuals use overview maps more often than field-independent

individuals. In the next article, Palmquist and Kim examine the effects of

field-dependence in Web search.


 Cognitive Style and On-Line Database Search Experience as Predictors of

Web Search Performance

 Ruth A. Palmquist and Kyung-Sun Kim


            The Web has captured the imagination of millions of users all over the

world. It is crucial for Web designers and indeed for all of us to

understand how individuals with different cognitive style, different

cognitive abilities, and different background in information systems

interact with the vast amount of information presented on the Web. At the

heart of the organization of information on the Web, it is the notion of

association, as manifested through hyperlinks connecting information that

is associated in one way or another. Once again, the ability to understand

an abstract structure of information, or derive a coherent structure by

articulating fragmented documents becomes a challenge to individuals'

ability to find and make the best use of the information available. The

significance of accommodating individual differences on Web search is clear.

            Palmquist and Kim examine the effects of cognitive style, namely

field-dependent and field-independent, and online database search

experience on Web search. An interesting finding of their study is that

online search experience can greatly reduce the effect of field-dependence

on Web search performance.




 The Tale of Two ERICs: Factors Influencing the Development of the First

ERIC and Its Transformation into a National System

 Lee G. Burchinal


 Burchinal reviews the early history of ERIC from the initial study by

Tauber and Lilly recommending a special information service for educational

media and a later study by Kent recommending a centralized service covering

all educational research materials, through the conceptual years, 1959 to

1963, until 1964 when personal relationships among Office of Education

bureaucrats led to it becoming a branch of the Division of Educational

Research, abstracting and indexing the reports of research funded by that

agency and providing consultation services.

 While planning for a centralized ERIC facility it became clear that while

a decentralized model of selection and representation of documents would be

more expensive and offer less control, it seemed far more politically

feasible. The new plan called for subject based semi-autonomous

clearinghouses, operated by Universities or professional associations, and

centralized computer and reproduction services handled by commercial

contractors. When the Elementary and Secondary Education Act passed in

1965, ERIC got a million dollar budget, and a real start. In May of 1966

North American Aviation got the contract to integrate the material from the

clearinghouses into one database, and in July of 1967 clearinghouse

documents appeared in Research in Education.


 Differences between Novice and Experienced Users in Searching Information

on the World Wide Web

 Ard W. Lazonder, Harm J.A. Biemans, and Iwan G.J.H. Wopereis


 Next, Lazonder, Biemans, and Wopereis observed 25 fourth grade students

divided into novice and expert classes on the basis of self reported World

Wide Web experience and a proficiency test. No significant differences were

found among the subjects in domain expertise (based on standard test

performance), gender or ethnic background. Each subject preformed three 13

minute search and browse assignments where site location and information

location were treated separately. Time and success were recorded, combined

to produce an efficiency value, and the number of actions carried out to

correctly solve a task was recorded as effectiveness.

 Experts preformed significantly faster and better on search engine search

for sites than did novices. However, no differences were apparent in the

search for information within the sites using the hypertext links

available. This argues that user training should concentrate on site

location, and only touch on hypertext browsing.





 Incremental Benefit of Human Indexing

 Susanne M. Humphrey










Volume 51, no 7


Date: Thu, 30 Mar 2000 10:36:20 -0500

From: Richard Hill <>

Subject: ASIS-L: JASIS TOC: Volume 51, Number 7



Journal of the American Society for Information Science




[Note: At the bottom are URLs for viewing contents of JASIS from past

issues.  Below the contents of Bert Boyce's "In This Issue" has been cut

into the Table of Contents.]




 In This Issue

 Bert R. Boyce


 We begin this issue with four diverse papers on clustering as a retrieval

method and end with three even more diverse papers on user study.




 Order-Theoretical Ranking

 Claudio Carpineto and Giovanni Romano


            First we have Carpineto and Romano, who make use of a clustered document

file based upon set inclusion relations among terms, merge queries into the

clustered document space and consider the shortest path between a query and

document as the basis of a retrieval status value. Typical hierarchical

clustering methods do not produce all likely clusters due to arbitrary tie

breaking, and fail to discriminate between documents with significantly

different degrees of similarity to a query. In their concept lattice

ranking (CLR), a lattice is built on the basis of term co-occurrence in

documents and supplemented rather than totally re-computed with the

addition of each new document or query.

             Using the CACM and CISI collections and queries, weighted term vectors

were computed to be used in best match retrieval, and a hierarchical single

link clustering using cosign ranking, for comparison with CLR. Lattice

construction took 15 minutes for CACM and 2 hours for CISI. Both best match

and CLR return better precision and recall measures than hierarchical

clustering, but little difference appears between the two. A comparison of

CLR and hierarchical clustering on unmatched documents was then carried out

using expected search length as a measure. CLR outperforms and may be

useful in discovering non-matching relevant documents.


 A Linear Algebra Measure of Cluster Quality

 Laura A. Mather


             Mather proposes a new measure of cluster effectiveness independent of

knowledge of retrieval measures computed for queries on the clustered file,

and based on the theory that the clustering quality of a term document

matrix is determined by the disjointedness of the terms across the

clusters. The ideal clustering case is that where terms which occur in one

cluster occur only in that cluster, or, that is to say, are mutually

exclusive across clusters. Such clusters occur if and only if the matrix is

``block diagonal,'' that is to say, has rows and columns that can be

permuted to produce a matrix that has some set of blocks on the diagonal of

the matrix that contain nonzero elements, while the remainder contain zero

elements. The singular values of each of the blocks of a block diagonal

matrix are the same as the singular values of a block diagonal matrix when

terms are disjoint and as the structure diverges from block diagonal the

two sets of singular values diverge as more term intersection occurs. A

measure of the distance between the singular values of the term document

matrix and the cluster matrices indicates cluster value, but is difficult

to interpret. By taking random permutations of the matrix and creating

clusters one can approximate the mean and standard deviation and by

subtracting the mean from the actual observed clustering and dividing by

the standard deviation of the samples, one can produce the number of

standard deviations from a random clustering for the observation. These

values can be compared to indicate the best clustering. The computation of

the singular values of many large matrices is required and would be

expensive. Experimentally the metric correlates significantly with Shaw's F

and with the precision measure, increasing as these measures increase.


A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval  

Sandor Dominich


             Dominich reviews the basic retrieval models concentrating upon the vector

space and probabilistic representations. He shows that these retrieval

models define systems of vicinities of documents around queries which can

both be represented by a similarity space and thus have a unified

mathematical definition.


Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System

Bin Zhu and Hsinchun Chen


             Zhu and Chen compare the performance of their Geographical Knowledge

Representation System with image retrieval by human subjects. Gabor filters

are used to extract low level features from 1282 pixel tiles cut from

aerial photograph images. A 60 feature vector describes each tile and a

Euclidean distance similarity measure is used to sort the tile images by

least distance. Adjacent similar tiles are grouped to create regions which

in turn are represented with derived vectors. Kohonen's Self Organizing Map

(SOM) is created showing tiles representing the textures to be found in the

data. Clicking on these displays the tiles in the same category.

             Thirty human subjects were assigned an image and six randomly selected

reference tiles to score for similarity to each of the 192 tiles in the

image. A second group of ten subjects were asked to draw lines around areas

they found similar to the reference tiles. A third group of ten subjects

were given the SOM selected reference tiles and asked to categorize each

tile in the whole image into categories represented by these reference

tiles. The system exhibited no significant difference in precision from the

human subjects but preformed less well on recall. Humans selected more

tiles viewed as similar and the top 5 system and subject tiles were

consistently different. Both had difficulty with tiles where texture alone

did not distinguish one from another. In tile groupings into regions,

humans out preformed the system on both measures but in image

categorization no significant difference existed. Adding features other

than texture may help performance which is close to inexpert human



How Can We Investigate Citation Behavior? A Study of Reasons for Citing

Literature in Communication  

Donald O. Case and Georgeann M. Higgins


             Case and Higgins review the previous studies providing lists of reasons

for author's citing behavior, and studies using these categories where

investigators classify citation behavior on the basis of content analysis.

They also reexamine the smaller set of studies involving surveys of authors

as to the reasons for their behavior. Choosing the two most highly cited

authors appearing in both of two recent studies of the Communication

literature all citations to their work in the years 1995 and 1996 were

collected. 133 unique citers were identified and sent 32 item

questionnaires with the questions from a recent study in the Psychology

literature. Returns from 56 were received, 31 for author A and 25 for

author B, and responses for the two authors were not significantly

different. No new reasons for citation were identified. The top reasons

were a review of past work, acting as a representative of a genre of

studies, and as a source of a method. Negative citation is quite rare.

Twenty five not redundant items with some indication of importance were

subjected to a factor analysis. Seven factors explain 69% of the variance;

classic citation, social reasons, negative citation, creative citation,

contrasting citation, similarity citation, and cite of a review. Factors

predicting citation are; perception of novelty and representation of a

genre, perception that citation will promote cognitive authority of the

citing work, and perception that the cited item deserves criticism.


Children's Use of the Yahooligans! Web Search Engine: I. Cognitive,

Physical, and Affective Behaviors on Fact-Based Search Tasks  

Dania Bilal


             In the Bilal study twenty two middle school students were assigned a

question to search in Yahooligans! as part of their Science class. The

teacher provided ratings of the children's topic knowledge, general science

knowledge, and reading ability. A quiz administered to the students

indicated knowledge of the Internet and of Yahooligans! in particular.

Lotus ScreenCam was used to record 18 of the student system interactions.

Student's transcribed moves were classified and counted with a score of one

(relevant) for selection of a link that appears appropriate and leads to

the desired information; .05 for the selection of a link that appear

appropriate but is not successful, and 0 to the selection of links that

give no indication of information leading to success. Weighted

effectiveness and efficiency scores are then computed.

             Thirty six percent initially browsed subject categories while the rest

entered single or multi-word concepts. Key words and in some cases natural

language were used in subsequent moves despite the fact that Yahooligans!

does not support natural language search. Subsequent activity mixed

browsing with term search. Looping and backtracking were very common but

the go button using the search history links was unused. Most children

scrolled but not often the complete page. Half were successful but all were



Ethnomethodologically Informed Ethnography and Information System Design  

Andy Crabtree, David M. Nichols, Jon O'Brien, Mark Rouncefield, and Michael

B. Twidale 


             Crabtree et al. object to traditional ethnographic analysis as applied to

information problems on the basis that the application of pre-defined rules

and procedures yields an organization of the activity observed from the

point of view of the analyst rather than that of the participants. Such a

``constructive analysis'' approach does not describe the actual activities,

but in the name of objectivity imposes a structure which obscures the real

world practices through which subjects make sense of their surroundings,

and produce information.

             Ethnomethodology emphasizes rigorous thick description of local practices

by assembling concrete cases of preformed activity as the direct units of

analysis. EM analysis attempts to generate a description in great detail of

how the described activity could be reproduced in and through the same

practices. Such description provides a sense of the real world aspects of a

socially organized setting to systems designers and thus provides the

exceptions, contradictions, and contingencies of the activities that

otherwise might not be evident. Practitioners of ethnography and computer

system design have quite different cultures but communication can lead to

far better design practices.




Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, Vol. 33, 1998, by

Martha E. Williams   Birger Hjorland



IT Investment in Developing Countries: An Assessment and Practical

Guideline, by Sam Lubbe   Queen Esther Booker



Information Brokering, by Florence M. Mason and Chris Dobson   James J.




Information Management for the Intellegent Organization: The Art of

Scanning the Environment, by Chun Wei Choo   Donald R. Smith






The ASIS home page <>

contains the Table of Contents and brief abstracts as above from January

1993 (Volume 44) to date.


The John Wiley Interscience site <>

includes issues from 1986 (Volume 37) to date.  Guests have access only to

tables of contents and abstracts.  Registered users of the interscience

site and ASIS members who have selected electronic access have access to

the full text of these issues and to preprints.



Richard Hill

American Society for Information Science

8720 Georgia Avenue, Suite 501

Silver Spring, MD  20910

(301) 495-0900

FAX: (301) 495-0810







>Date:         Thu, 23 Mar 2000 23:54:23 +0100

>Reply-To:     Forum of the IFLA Social Science Libraries

>section              <SOC-LIB@NIC.SURFNET.NL>

>From:         Hans-Christoph Hobohm <hobohm@FH-POTSDAM.DE>

>Subject:      call for papers



>Call For Papers


>I am looking for people from academic, public, school, and special

>libraries who will be willing to contribute to a special issue of the

>Reference Librarian that I am guest editing.  The tentative title of the

>issue is: The Difficult Library Patron Issue: 21st Century Approaches

>and Solutions to a Life-Time Issue.


>Here is the outline of what I intend the special issue to be. If you are

>interested in contributing, please send me a one page proposal of what

>topic you would like to write about.  Feel free to suggest other

>categories I may have left out of the outline.  Include in your proposal

>your name, affiliation, and e-mail address.  The deadline for submitting

>a proposal is April 30, 2000.


>Section 1.


>The Problem Patron:

>Definitions, Etc.

>Historical perspectives: From the past to Present


>Section 2:


>The Benefits of patron Complaints: Wake Up Calls to What We Do(n't) Do


>How to Solicit Problems from Patrons

>Responding to Patron Problems


>Section 3: Made for the Millennium: The Electronic-Age Made Problem



>  Cell Phones in the Library

>  Internet Users in the Library

>  Users Wanting to Print Their Documents at Libraries Workstations

>  Laptop Users in the Library, etc.



>Section 4: Solving the Difficult Library Problem:


>  Empowering front-line Employees

>  Partnership with Community Resources-- Campus Police, Town Police

>  Revisiting Library Policies to reflect the 21st Century: Rewriting


>  A Hundred Years from Now: Getting Prepared for the Next Millennium.


>Kwasi Sarkodie-Mensah

>Manager, Instructional Services

>Boston College Libraries

>312 O'Neill Library

>Chestnut Hill, MA 02467-3810



>    Prof. Dr. Hans-Christoph Hobohm <>

>    University of Applied Sciences (FH), LIS / ABD

>    Friedrich-Ebert-Str. 4, D-14467 Potsdam, Germany

>    school office: ++49 / 331 580-1514 (fon, +voicemail) -1599 (fax)

>-> home office:   ++49 / 331 50 53 950 (fon + fax)








RLG DigiNews


Date:         Fri, 17 Dec 1999 15:10:42 -0500

Sender:       International Federation of Library Associations mailing list              <IFLA-L@INFOSERV.NLC-BNC.CA>

From:         Barbara Berger Eden <beb1@CORNELL.EDU>

Subject:      December RLG DigiNews Now Available


 The current issue of RLG DigiNews is now Available at:


Volume 3, Number 6


Feature Article

Digitisation of Newspaper Clippings: The LAURIN Project by G



Technical Features

The Digital Atheneum - Restoring Damaged Manuscripts by W. Brent

Seales and James Griffioen

Conference Report

Digital Preservation: A Report from the Roundtable Held in Munich,

10-11 October 1999

Highlighted Web Site - Open eBook Initiative

FAQs - Developments in Display Technology


RLG DigiNews is a bimonthly web-based newsletter intended to:

* Focus on issues of particular interest and value to managers of digital

initiatives with a preservation component or rationale.

* Provide filtered guidance and pointers to relevant projects to improve our

awareness of evolving practices in image conversion and digital archiving.

* Announce publications (in any form) that will help staff attain a deeper

understanding of digital issues.











Version 28


Date:         Wed, 8 Dec 1999 15:43:28 -0600

Sender: "ASIS-L: American Society for Information Science"


From: "Charles W. Bailey, Jr." <cbailey@UH.EDU>

Subject:      Version 28, Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography


Version 28 of the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography

is now available.  This selective bibliography presents over

1,060 articles, books, electronic documents, and other sources

that are useful in understanding scholarly electronic publishing

efforts on the Internet and other networks.


     HTML: <URL:>

     Acrobat: <URL:>

     Word 97: <URL:>


The HTML document is designed for interactive use.  Each

major section is a separate file.  There are live links to

sources available on the Internet.  It can be can be searched using

Boolean operators.


The HTML document also includes Scholarly Electronic Publishing

Resources, a collection of links to related Web sites:




The Acrobat and Word files are designed for printing.

Each file is over 250 KB.


(Revised sections in this version are marked with an asterisk.)


Table of Contents


1 Economic Issues*

2 Electronic Books and Texts

     2.1 Case Studies and History*

     2.2 General Works*

     2.3 Library Issues*

3  Electronic Serials

     3.1 Case Studies and History*

     3.2 Critiques

     3.3 Electronic Distribution of Printed Journals

     3.4 General Works*

     3.5 Library Issues*

     3.6 Research*

4 General Works*

5 Legal Issues

     5.1 Intellectual Property Rights*

     5.2 License Agreements*

     5.3 Other Legal Issues*

6  Library Issues

     6.1 Cataloging, Classification, and Metadata*

     6.2 Digital Libraries*

     6.3 General Works*

     6.4 Information Conversion, Integrity, and Preservation*

7 New Publishing Models*

8 Publisher Issues

     8.1 Electronic Commerce/Copyright Systems*

Appendix A. Related Bibliographies by the Same Author

Appendix B. About the Author


Best Regards,



Charles W. Bailey, Jr., Assistant Dean for Systems,

University Libraries, University of Houston, Houston, TX

77204-2091.  E-mail:  Voice: (713) 743-9804.

Fax: (713) 743-9811.








Volume 6, Number 40, February 25, 2000            


Date: Tue, 29 Feb 2000 11:31:57 +1100

Subject: Fw: The Scout Report -- February 25, 2000 edited & redirected




The Scout Report                                           

February 25, 2000                                       

Volume 6, Number 40                                   

Internet Scout Project

University of Wisconsin

Department of Computer Sciences




I N   T H E   S C O U T   R E P O R T   T H I S   W E E K



 3.  PubMed Central [.pdf]


 After almost a year of sometimes contentious debate, the National

 Institutes of Health has officially opened PubMed Central, a free

 online archive of full-text, peer-reviewed research papers in the

 life sciences. While the majority of the major scientific publishers

 have declined to participate, a number of respected journals will be

 featured at the site. The first of these are _Molecular Biology of

the Cell_ and _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the

 United States of America_. At the time of writing, only the November

 1, 1999 issue of _Molecular Biology of the Cell_ was available. Users

 can view abstracts or the full text of over 30 articles in HTML or

.pdf format. The full texts of issues for both journals from 1999 and

1998 are in preparation. Forthcoming journals include _Biochemical

Journal_, _Canadian Medical Association Journal_, _Frontiers in

Bioscience_, and five journals from BioMed Central. Background and

participation information are available at the site. While current

offerings at the site are modest, PubMed Central promises to become a

major resource for scholars and professionals in the life sciences.



7.  Comparative Mammalian Brain Collections [QuickTime]


Located at the Department of Physiology at the University of

Wisconsin - Madison, this site offers images and information from

"one of the world's largest collection of well-preserved, sectioned

and stained brains." The site features photos of brains of over 100

different species of mammals, representing 17 mammalian orders. Users

can browse the collection by common or scientific name; view serial

sections of selected specimens (including human and chimpanzee), some

of which are also available as QuickTime movies; read about the

importance and history of the collections; and learn about brain

evolution (this last section still under construction). Additional

resources include a collection of related links and an internal

search engine. [MD]



8.  Student Advantage: Academic Research Engine


Last week, Student Advantage announced its new academic research

engine, developed in partnership with Northern Light (see the

September 19, 1997 _Scout Report_). Students can keyword search 25

different subjects either individually or simultaneously. Some

features adopted from Northern Light's search engine make Student

Advantage likely to reduce, at least, the ratio of student

frustration to success when attempting to do Internet research.

First, results of an initial search include a sidebar that organizes

returns in subject folders allowing users to focus only on those that

seem most promising. Second, the "drill and search" feature allows

students to then refine their searches within these subject folders.

This two-step process mitigates the centrifugal Internet experience

most student-researchers encounter. The site also features a listing

of online reference sources and a free download of Q-Notes, software

for electronic note-taking (for PCs only). (Caveat: Many of the

book-length texts listed in results are merely links to,

and some of the articles listed are held in Northern Light's

fee-based Special Collection.) [DC]


21. Bare Bones 101: A Very Basic Web Search Tutorial


Created by Ellen Chamberlain, Head Librarian at the University of

South Carolina-Beaufort campus, this collection of concise lessons is

designed to help users get their Web searches on the right track

quickly and easy. The tutorial is divided into 20 independent

lessons, addressing topics such as meta-searchers, subject

directories, evaluating sites, Boolean logic, and field searching. It

also offers overviews of eight of the most popular search engines.

The last lesson consists of a list of what Chamberlain feels are the

best resources for more in-depth guides to searching the Internet.



 == Subscription and Contact Information ==

To receive the electronic mail version of the Scout Report each week,


the SCOUT-REPORT mailing list. This is the only mail you will receive


this list.


To subscribe Scout Report, go to:


Or send email to:

In the body of the message type:

subscribe SCOUT-REPORT



For subscription options, send email to:

In the body of the message type:



> > The Scout Report (ISSN 1092-3861) is published every Friday of the

> > year except the last Friday of December by the Internet Scout

> > Project, located in the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department

> > of Computer Sciences.

> >

> >               Director   Susan Calcari

> >        Managing Editor   Travis Koplow       [TK]

> >                 Editor   Michael de Nie      [MD]

> >           Contributors   David Charbonneau   [DC]

> >                          Aimee D. Glassel    [AG]

> >                          Emily Missner       [EM]

> >                          Laura X. Payne      [LXP]

> >                          Krishna Ramanujan   [KR]

> >                          Debra Shapiro       [DS]

> >                          Joseph Bockhorst    [JB]

> >                         Jen E. Boone        [JEB]

> >                         Scott Watkins       [SW]

> >   Technical Specialist   Pat Coulthard       [PC]

> > Website Administrator   Alan Foley          [AF]

> >

> > Internet Scout team member information:

> >





Volume 6, Number 44,  March 24, 2000                                 


> From: Scout Project <scout@CS.WISC.EDU>


> Subject: The Scout Report -- March 24, 2000

> Date: Saturday, 25 March 2000 8:14


> ========  The Scout Report                                            ==

> ========  March 24, 2000                                            ====

> ========  Volume 6, Number 44                                     ======

> ======                                   Internet Scout Project ========

> ====                                    University of Wisconsin ========

> ==                              Department of Computer Sciences ========



> ==   I N   T H E   S C O U T   R E P O R T   T H I S   W E E K  ========




> ====== Subject Specific Reports ====

> 1.  Scout Report for Social Sciences and Business & Economics


> ====== Research and Education ====

> 2. Relaunches With Five Major Reference Works

> 3.  British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII)

> 4.  Archives of Maryland Online

> 5.  The Korean War - Project Whistlestop

> 6. Global Archive

> 7.  University of Pennsylvania Digital Library Project

> 8.  Museums and the Web 2000: Speakers' Papers

> 9.  A Thousand Years of Work and Money

> 10. Women in Politics: Bibliographic Database

> 11. forced-migration-history


> ====== General Interest ====

> 12. Supreme Court Rules on Tobacco Regulation and Student Fees

> 13. Budget 2000 Prudent for A Purpose: Working for a Stronger and

> Fairer Britain

> 14. The Nazi Olympics: 1936 Berlin

> 15. _Annual Defense Report 2000_

> 16. Opinion-Pages

> 17. Report of the Panel of Experts on Violations of Security Council

> Sanctions Against UNITA

> 18. Railway Women in Wartime

> 19. _Inc._ 500

> 20.


> ====== Network Tools ====

> 21. Google Web Directory

> 22. The Spire Project

> 23. LinkBox 2.5


> ====== In The News ====

> 24. Russian Presidential Election



> Copyright and subscription information appear at the end of the Scout

> Report. For more information on all services of the Internet Scout

> Project, please visit our Website:


> If you'd like to know how the Internet Scout team selects resources

> for inclusion in the Scout Report, visit our Selection Criteria page

> at:


> Feedback is always welcome:




> ====== Subject Specific Reports ====


> 1.  Scout Report for Social Sciences and Business & Economics

> _Scout Report for Social Sciences_


> _Scout Report for Business & Economics_



> The thirteenth issues of the third volumes of the Scout Reports for

> Social Sciences and Business & Economics are available. The In the

> News section of the Social Sciences Report annotates eight resources

> on last week's elections in Taiwan. The Business & Economics Report's

> In the News section offers eight resources on the recent interest

> rate hike. [MD]




> ====== Research and Education ====


> 2. Relaunches With Five Major Reference Works



> On March 20, a premiere source for free online

> literature, verse, and reference books, relaunched their Website and

> added five major reference works. Users can now access complete

> electronic versions of the _Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition_;

> _The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third

> Edition_; _Roget's II: The New Thesaurus, Third Edition_; _Simpson's

> Contemporary Quotations_; and _The American Heritage Book of English

> Usage_. Each of these works may be browsed by the table of contents

> or index or searched by keyword. Unlike most of Bartleby's offerings,

> which are classic texts now out of copyright, these additions are all

> recent editions, the oldest dating to 1988. The new Bartleby homepage

> is attractive and easily navigated, offering pull-down menu access to

> its content in four categories: Reference, Verse, Nonfiction, and

> Literature. Users can also conduct keyword searches across all or

> selected areas of the site from the main page. [MD]



> 3.  British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII)


> Australasian Legal Information Institute



> Launched last week, this pilot service from AustLII (Australian Legal

> Information Institute) offers free access to British and Irish legal

> materials, currently containing over 75,000 searchable documents with

> about 2 million hypertext links. At present, the site hosts fourteen

> databases from five jurisdictions, which may be searched individually

> or jointly. These include UK House of Lords Decisions, England and

> Wales High Court and Court of Appeal Decisions, Scottish High Court

> Decisions, Northern Ireland High Court and Court of Appeal Decisions,

> and Irish High Court and Court of Appeal Decisions, among others.

> Users may search the databases by keyword (supports Boolean

> searches), or browse cases and legislation by country and court/

> legislative body. Links to additional legal materials via the AustLII

> site are also provided. Planned additions in the next month include

> UK Legislation, UK Statutory Instruments, Scottish Legislation,

> Scottish Statutory Instruments, and Irish Statutory Instruments. [MD]



> 4.  Archives of Maryland Online [QuickTime]



> "The Maryland State Archives, through a grant from the Information

> Technology Fund of the state of Maryland, is working to provide

> on-line access to over one million historical documents that form the

> constitutional, legal, legislative, and administrative basis of

> Maryland government." Included here are documents from the following

> sources: legislative records, state council, judicial records,

> executive records, council of safety, land records, laws, codes,

> compilations, military records, constitutional conventions, public

> officials, and early state records. Recent editions to the electronic

> archive include the Proceedings and Acts of the 1796 General Assembly

> and Proceedings and Debates of the 1850, 1864, and 1967 State

> Constitutional Conventions. The archives are searchable as a whole or

> by selected section with a number of different parameter options

> available. Scholars doing research into the state of Maryland or the

> history of the early American Republic's governance will want to

> avail themselves of this site. [DC]



> 5.  The Korean War - Project Whistlestop



> Provided by Project Whistlestop, the Harry S. Truman online digital

> archive (reviewed in the July 17, 1998 _Scout Report_), this site

> hosts an excellent collection of primary resources for teaching or

> researching the Korean War. Most of these are offered in the ongoing

> Week by Week section, which contains a chronology, accounts, letters,

> presidential calendars, telegrams, memorandums, and other digitized

> documents that trace developments in the war on a daily and weekly

> basis. At present, only the first few weeks of the war, June 24-July

> 21, 1950, are complete. Other resources include photographs, teaching

> materials, and related links. [MD]



> 6. Global Archive


> e=stdsearch.jsp


> Behind this rather ugly URL, users will find _Financial Times's_

> Global Archive, where they can search and read over 6 million

> articles from 3,000 periodicals worldwide, most of them for free.

> Keyword searches may be modified in a number of ways, and users can

> select to search one, several, or all of the publication groups

> indexed. Registered users may also save their searches for later

> reference. Although quite slow to load at times, the site is a

> powerful tool for anyone searching for current business-related news

> and writing. [MD]



> 7.  University of Pennsylvania Digital Library Project [.pdf]



> Launched in January, this collaborative project of the University of

> Pennsylvania and Oxford University Press (OUP) will "study digital

> book use and its impact on teaching, learning, and book sales." While

> the full collection of texts (300-400 titles in history over the next

> five years) will only be available to the Penn community, the project

> does offer a preview site for the general public. At this site, users

> can read the full text of three recently published (1999 and 2000)

> OUP books: Louise Newman's _White Women's Rights The Racial Origins

> of Feminism in the United States_, Walter Laqueur's _The New

> Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction_, and Joseph

> Rothschild's _Return To Diversity: A Political History of East

> Central Europe Since World War II_. Users interested in developing

> similar projects at their institutions will also want to read the

> project overview and press release, as well as browse the collection

> list by title or author. [MD]



> 8.  Museums and the Web 2000: Speakers' Papers


> Museums and the Web 2000 homepage


> Past Conference Papers



> Now in its fourth year, Museums and the Web 2000 will be held April

> 16-19 in Minneapolis, where international attendees will discuss and

> explore a number of themes related to exhibits and programming on the

> Web. Those unable to attend the conference can still benefit from the

> 60+ presentations and demonstration papers now available on the Web.

> Some describe individual projects, while others answer how-to

> questions for museums just venturing into the digital realm. Examples

> of paper topics include "Integration of Primary Resource Materials

> into Elementary School Curricula," "Protecting a museum's digital

> stock through watermarks," "How to get more than 500,000

> museum-visitors within 6 months," and "Universal Access: Designing

> Web Pages for the Hearing- and Visually-Impaired." Abstracts are

> available for those papers that are not available online in

> full-text. Papers and abstracts from the previous three conferences

> are also available at the above URL. [MD]



> 9.  A Thousand Years of Work and Money



> This special collection of articles from the _Christian Science

> Monitor_ examines the evolution of work. "Infinite Quest" considers

> workers's needs to have a safe and secure place to work, comparing

> today's workers with their counterparts in 1000 AD. "Events That

> Shook the World of Work" provides short synopses of the 20 most

> important "inventions and developments, and how they changed the way

> jobs get done" from the rise of guilds in the eleventh century to the

> World Wide Web in 1993. The improvements in wages and quality of

> living over time are outlined in "More Power to More People," while

> "The Search for Personal Wealth" deals with the finances of workers

> throughout the past 1000 years focusing especially on the changes

> wrought by investing. Finally, "Rooted in Religion, Charities Branch

> Out" explores the development of not-for-profit agencies. These

> thoughtful, well-written articles are accompanied by a timeline that

> charts the evolution of currency. [EM]



> 10. Women in Politics: Bibliographic Database



> This bibliographic database currently holds 650 titles of recent

> works concerned with women in politics. A new addition to the

> Inter-Parliamentary Union's "Democracy through Partnership between

> Men and Women in Politics" site, "it provides bibliographic

> references to books, reports and journal articles on all aspects of

> women's participation in political life worldwide." The search

> mechanism allows users to specify type of document, geographic

> region, publishing organization, subject matter, author, title of

> periodical, and year of publication. Alternatively, there is also a

> subject keyword search. For more information about the

> Inter-Parliamentary Union Website, see the December 12, 1997 _Scout

> Report_. [DC]



> 11. forced-migration-history



> This new, UK-based, moderated mailing list serves as a forum for

> discussions on population displacements in 20th-century European

> history, "and to explore the inter-relationship of forced

> migration/resettlement/repatriation with nationalism, state formation

> and the construction of social identities." While the moderators

> believe that most of the subscribers will be involved in migration

> studies, history, geography, demography, and anthropology or

> sociology, scholars from other fields and different geographical and

> historical time periods are most welcome. Users will find archived

> messages and subscription information at the site. [MD]




> ====== General Interest ====


> 12. Supreme Court Rules on Tobacco Regulation and Student Fees

> Food and Drug Administration et al. v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco

> Corp. et al. [.pdf]


> Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System v. Southworth et




> In a major victory for cigarette manufacturers and a setback for the

> Clinton Administration, the nation's highest court ruled Tuesday that

> the government does not have the authority to regulate tobacco as an

> addictive drug. The case, on appeal from the US Court of Appeals for

> the Fourth Circuit, concerns the sweeping new regulations introduced

> by the Food and Drug Administration in 1996 with the president's

> strong support. In her opinion for the 5-4 majority, Justice Sandra

> Day O'Connor concluded that Congress had not granted the FDA the

> authority it sought to exercise over tobacco products. On Wednesday,

> the Court issued a ruling that had very large consequences for public

> colleges and universities, deciding unanimously that these

> institutions can use money from mandatory student-activities fees to

> finance campus groups to which some students object. The case stemmed

> from a lawsuit filed by three "conservative Christian" law students

> at the University of Wisconsin-Madison who wished to withhold their

> student fees from 18 of the 125 student groups subsidized by the

> university. This ruling does not apply to private universities, as

> the First Amendment only protects speech from government

> restrictions. Users can read the full text of the Syllabi (head

> notes), Opinions, and Dissent/ Concurrence for both cases in HTML and

> .pdf format at the Cornell University Legal Information Institute

> Supreme Court Collection site. [MD]



> 13. Budget 2000 Prudent for A Purpose: Working for a Stronger and

> Fairer Britain


> BBC News Budget 2000 In-Depth



> This week, Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown unveiled the UK

> government's new budget. In crafting the budget, the chancellor had

> to walk a delicate political tightrope by avoiding the so-called "tax

> and spend" policies which characterized "Old Labour" administrations

> and still appealing to the core Labour voters. Using surpluses

> instead of new taxes, the budget calls for significant new spending

> (2 billion pounds) on health and education, two areas where the

> government has been criticized for not living up to its promises.

> Users can read the full text of the budget, which includes six

> chapters, several appendices, charts, and tables, at the Stationary

> Office homepage. For a wealth of analysis, commentary, and related

> materials on the budget, visit the special in-depth site from BBC

> News. [MD]



> 14. The Nazi Olympics: 1936 Berlin



> The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum presents this Web version

> of an exhibition depicting the 1936 Olympics as a two-week anomaly

> during which Germany attempted to conceal the racist and militaristic

> character of the newly powerful Nazi regime and appear a tolerant

> host for the international games. In spite of this, some individual

> athletes and countries elected to boycott the 1936 Olympics. Using a

> variety of graphic materials such as photographs, posters, and

> newspaper clippings, accompanied by explanatory texts, the exhibition

> lays out this history in ordered sections from the rise of Nazism in

> Germany to concluding sections on World War II and the Holocaust. In

> between are sections like the Boycott and the Olympics. The former

> includes an account by Milton Green, the Jewish captain of the

> Harvard track team who took first place in pre-Olympic trials, then

> decided to boycott the Nazi Olympics. The latter features Nazi

> propaganda promoting the games, as well as images of

> African-Americans who participated. The concluding image of the show

> is a table of photographs of Olympic athletes who died in the

> Holocaust. [DS]



> 15. _Annual Defense Report 2000_ [.pdf, 2200K]


> Annual Defense Report -- DOD



> Forwarded to the President and Congress annually, the Secretary of

> Defense's _Annual Defense Report_ serves as "a basic reference

> document for those interested in national defense issues and

> programs." The 350-page 2000 edition is available in HTML and .pdf

> formats. It covers topics such as defense strategy, the current state

> of the armed forces, plans for transforming the armed forces and the

> Department of Defense, statutory reports from the individual

> secretaries, and a number of appendices. The Department of Defense

> (DOD) Annual Defense Report page contains previous reports to 1995

> and an internal search engine. [MD]



> 16. Opinion-Pages



> Created and operated by Montgomery Kersell, this excellent resource

> allows users to access very recent opinion and editorial pieces from

> approximately 600 different English-language international sources.

> Indexed daily, the database can be searched by keyword with numerous

> modifiers. Returns include a link to the piece and a brief abstract.

> A sample search for "presidential campaign" produced 40 hits, while

> one for "Kashmir" returned 11 hits. In both cases, the pieces linked

> to were very current, many from that day. Users can also keyword

> search topical collections of columnists's pages, including Political

> & General, Business & Finance, Technology, Arts & Leisure, Health,

> and Sports. Those looking for the opinion page or letter to the

> editor columns for specific newspapers can browse a geographic

> listing. Additional resources include a pair of opinion columns

> (Think Ahead and Think Sideways) penned by Kersell himself. [MD]



> 17. Report of the Panel of Experts on Violations of Security Council

> Sanctions Against UNITA



> Released by the United Nations on March 15, this study alleges that a

> number of European and African states have violated the UN's arms and

> financial embargoes against the Angola rebel army UNITA. Bulgaria,

> according to the report, is one of the chief offenders, serving as

> the primary source of arms purchased by UNITA. Burkina Faso and Togo,

> two West African nations, have acted as important transit points for

> the shipment of weapons and fuel, which have been paid for in part by

> diamonds, many of which are reportedly sold at the world's largest

> diamond market in Antwerp, Belgium. Users can read the full text of

> the report, which includes a table of contents, at the UN site. [MD]



> 18. Railway Women in Wartime



> Compiled by Helena Wojtczak, the first woman to be employed as a

> guard by British Rail and an authority on the history of

> railwaywomen, this collection of annotated photos documents the

> experiences of women working on the British railways during the two

> World Wars. More than 200,000 women worked on the rails during the

> wars, performing all manner of duties, such as porters, guards,

> repair crew, workshop staff, and signal women. Users can browse the

> collection by period and job type or tour the entire site via a link

> at the bottom of each page. Each section offers a few well-chosen

> quotes (many from the photo subjects themselves), and the quality of

> the featured photos is on the whole quite good. While certainly not

> as large as some online photo exhibits, Railway Women in Wartime

> provides an interesting and entertaining glimpse into an understudied

> aspect of British women's history. [MD]



> 19. _Inc._ 500



> The Inc. 500, from _Inc. Magazine_, features the annual list of the

> 500 fastest growing private companies. Along with announcing the

> winners for 1999, _Inc._ has created a database of winners from 1982

> to 1999, searchable by year, company name, keyword, state, and

> sector. While a large percentage of the 1999 winners are

> technology-based companies, Roth Staffing, an Orange County staffing

> service, came in first place. The _Inc._ 500 also contains short

> articles about each of the companies along with at-a-glance company

> overviews, a hall of fame, and additional articles and stories. The

> site includes an online application form for those interested in

> nominating a company for the _Inc._ 500 2000. [EM]



> 20. [Flash, RealPlayer]



> Die-hard college hoops fans, especially those whose team is still in

> the running, have no doubt reached a state of frenzy and froth, as

> the sweet sixteen, after tonight, becomes the elite eight. Even the

> mildly curious, however, will find numerous items of interest at the

> official site of the NCAA men and women's tournaments. There visitors

> will find live coverage, game summaries and breaking news, analysis

> of the impending matchups, statistics, an animated playbook, photos,

> and much more. Whatever your level of interest in the tournaments,

> this is the site. [MD]




> ====== Network Tools ====


> 21. Google Web Directory



> In a rather brilliant move, Google has licensed the data compiled by

> the Open Directory Project (ODP) (reviewed in the November 20, 1998

> _Scout

> Report_--}

> ), used by a number of major search sites, and applied its own

> powerful searching technology, adding further value to what many

> believe are the Web's top search site and directory. As with Yahoo

> and the original ODP, users can browse for sites by picking a major

> category (there are more than 230,000 hierarchical categories in

> total) and drilling down. However, unlike other users of ODP data,

> the Google Directory employs its PageRank technology so that sites

> are listed from most to least relevant or important, rather than

> alphabetically, helping users find the best sites quickly and easily.

> This new feature is also integrated with all of the Google search

> interfaces, allowing single-click access to the relevant directory

> categories from all search returns. Already widely recognized for its

> speed, accuracy, and uncluttered design, with the addition of the

> ODP's data, Google may very well supplant the other major players and

> become the most popular Internet search site. [MD]



> 22. The Spire Project


> UK Mirror


> Australia Mirror



> Created and maintained by David Novak, the Spire Project has been

> expanded and refined since its original review in the January 14,

> 1999 _Scout Report for Social Sciences_. Offered as both a research

> guide and search-engine alternative, the site offers a number of

> searching tutorials on specific topics which feature numerous links

> and search forms. While each tutorial is different, most contain a

> mix of official or governmental sites, databases, libraries, and

> commercial resources. The Government Resources section, for instance,

> covers general sources for government information and a number of

> specific ones for the US, UK, and Canada. Other tutorials include

> Finding Articles, Searching Patents, Company Information, Country

> Profiles, and Finding a Library, among others. Most offer some final

> thoughts in a conclusion as well as search strategies. While the site

> will certainly prove a considerable help to newer users, more

> experienced internauts may also want to poke around a bit to find

> some new resources or brush up on their searching strategies. [MD]



> 23. LinkBox 2.5 [Mac OS 8]



> LinkBox is a compact and basic utility for storing URLs found in

> emails, newsgroup messages, or any text message. While most current

> email browsers and word processors handle URLs quite adequately and

> interface with Web browsers, LinkBox is helpful for those situations

> where the URL is not clickable or for saving lists of URLs (note:

> only five URLs can be saved on the shareware version). LinkBox

> features drag and drop capability which makes it much more useful

> than other basic URL utilities, but it offers no way to sort or

> arrange URLs. The shareware version is $10. [AF]




> ====== In The News ====


> 24. Russian Presidential Election

> Russia's Vote for President -- BBC News


> lections/default.stm

> Election 2000 -- _Moscow Times_


> CNN - In-Depth: Russia Election


> Resources on the Russian Presidential Elections


> Russia Votes


> "Russian Presidential Election Rules" -- _Russia Today_


> "Putin Reflects Russia's Perplexed, Lost Society" -- _St. Petersburg



> "A Russian voter's confusion over Putin" -- _Christian Science Monitor_


> "As Russian election nears, little is known of the top candidate" --

> _Philadelphia Inquirer_


> Voice of Russia


> The Government of the Russian Federation



> It appears that Vladimir Putin's biggest challenge in Sunday's

> election comes not from one of the ten other candidates vying for the

> Russian Presidency, but rather from voter apathy. The election of the

> acting President is regarded as such a foregone conclusion that some

> even fear that not enough Russians will go to the polls (50 percent)

> to make the election valid. A low turnout could also deny Putin the

> 50 percent of the vote cast he needs to win outright and avoid a

> run-off, probably with the Communist candidate, Gennady Zyuganov.

> Putin appeared recently on television and issued an appeal to the

> voters, reminding them that the election does indeed matter, as the

> President is the chief of the armed forces in a country with a

> nuclear arsenal. A relative unknown when he was named prime minister

> in August, the former KGB official has won broad support for the

> campaign in Chechnya. Beyond that, however, he remains an enigma to

> many, even in the Russian press. His refusal to discuss even basic

> policy questions leaves many wondering about Russia's future under

> the imminent Putin presidency. Only after his election, it appears,

> will Putin reveal where he intends to lead Russia.


> Readers can begin their search for more information on the election

> with the ever-dependable BBC. Their special on the election includes

> breaking news, analysis, archived articles, a clickable guide to the

> various power bases in Russia, a slideshow, profiles, and related

> links. The _Moscow Times_ has also created an election special,

> featuring a number of articles and candidate profiles, as has CNN,

> whose site offers issue briefs, recent news, a map and timeline,

> analysis, and candidate profiles. Additional special reports and

> related resources, including polling data, can be found at the

> Resources on the Russian Presidential Elections page from the Russian

> and Eurasian Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International

> Peace and at Russia Votes, a joint project of the Centre for the

> Study of Public Policy, University of Strathclyde, and the Russian

> Center for Public Opinion and Market Research (VCIOM). A concise

> summary of the election rules is posted on the _Russia Today_ site,

> while editorial pieces on the election are offered by the _St.

> Petersburg Times_, _Christian Science Monitor_, and the _Philadelphia

> Inquirer_. Additional information is available from the Voice of

> Russia radio service and the official site of the Government of the

> Russian Federation. [MD]





> ======                        ======

> ==   Index for March 24, 2000     ==

> ======                        ======


> 1.  Scout Report for Social Sciences and Business & Economics

> _Scout Report for Social Sciences_


> _Scout Report for Business & Economics_



> 2. Relaunches With Five Major Reference Works



> 3.  British and Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII)


> Australasian Legal Information Institute



> 4.  Archives of Maryland Online [QuickTime]



> 5.  The Korean War - Project Whistlestop



> 6. Global Archive


> e=stdsearch.jsp


> 7.  University of Pennsylvania Digital Library Project [.pdf]



> 8.  Museums and the Web 2000: Speakers' Papers


> Museums and the Web 2000 homepage


> Past Conference Papers



> 9.  A Thousand Years of Work and Money



> 10. Women in Politics: Bibliographic Database



> 11. forced-migration-history



> 12. Supreme Court Rules on Tobacco Regulation and Student Fees

> Food and Drug Administration et al. v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco

> Corp. et al. [.pdf]


> Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System v. Southworth et




> 13. Budget 2000 Prudent for A Purpose: Working for a Stronger and

> Fairer Britain


> BBC News Budget 2000 In-Depth



> 14. The Nazi Olympics: 1936 Berlin



> 15. _Annual Defense Report 2000_ [.pdf, 2200K]


> Annual Defense Report -- DOD



> 16. Opinion-Pages



> 17. Report of the Panel of Experts on Violations of Security Council

> Sanctions Against UNITA



> 18. Railway Women in Wartime



> 19. _Inc._ 500



> 20. [Flash, RealPlayer]



> 21. Google Web Directory



> 22. The Spire Project


> UK Mirror


> Australia Mirror



> 23. LinkBox 2.5 [Mac OS 8]



> 24. Russian Presidential Election

> Russia's Vote for President -- BBC News


> lections/default.stm

> Election 2000 -- _Moscow Times_


> CNN - In-Depth: Russia Election


> Resources on the Russian Presidential Elections


> Russia Votes


> "Russian Presidential Election Rules" -- _Russia Today_


> "Putin Reflects Russia's Perplexed, Lost Society" -- _St. Petersburg



> "A Russian voter's confusion over Putin" -- _Christian Science Monitor_


> "As Russian election nears, little is known of the top candidate" --

> _Philadelphia Inquirer_


> Voice of Russia


> The Government of the Russian Federation





> ======                                ====

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> ====== The Scout Report

> ====== Brought to You by the Internet Scout Project

> ====

> ==

> The Scout Report (ISSN 1092-3861) is published every Friday of the

> year except the last Friday of December by the Internet Scout

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> of Computer Sciences.


>               Director   Susan Calcari

>        Managing Editor   Travis Koplow       [TK]

>                 Editor   Michael de Nie      [MD]

>           Contributors   David Charbonneau   [DC]

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