LIBRES: Library and Information Science Research
Electronic Journal ISSN 1058-6768
2000 Volume 10 Issue 2; September.


 Editorial note:

 This section contains items culled from various Internet news services, discussion lists and other announcements.  Unless specifically noted, I have not visited the sites, used any of the software, reviewed the literature, or written the news items.  I present this digest to you in good faith but cannot vouch for the accuracy of its content.




Date: Mon, 3 Apr 2000 17:31:46 -0500
Sender: H-NET Discussion List on the History of Library and Information
From: H-LIS Editor <>
Subject: CALL FOR PAPERS - "The Library as an Agency of Culture"

Call for Papers


( Apologies for cross-postings; recipients should feel free to forward
this message to listserves of other interested scholarly communities)

At the beginning of the 21st century there are more public libraries in the
United States than McDonald's restaurants. In 1998 Americans visited
libraries three times as often as they attended movie theatres. That same
year more children participated in summer reading programs than Little
League baseball. Although scholarship on libraries has told us much about
the user in the life of the library, it has told us considerably less about
the library in the life of the user. How much do we really know about the
place of these ubiquitous institutions in American society and culture?
How should we analyze the role of libraries in the modern "information age"?

For the Summer, 2001, issue of AMERICAN STUDIES, we seek papers that
analyze the American library as an agency of culture. We welcome papers
that bring new methodological, theoretical, geographic, and cultural
perspectives to the American library in its past and present forms, and
that evaluate in new ways the cultural agencies performed by libraries in
American life, including:

- concepts of the library
- libraries as contested sites for the production, storage, and
dissimination of
"cultural capital" (private and public libraries, archives,
the USIA, special collections, etc.)
- the social and psychological history of reading facilitated by libraries
- the material history of libraries (design, architecture, furniture,
impact of new
technology, etc.)
- the library's interface with particular communities (prisons, hospitals,
churches, factories, etc.)
- the organization and sociology of knowledge (librarianship and the
catalog and classification systems, etc.)
- the use and appropriation of libraries by particular populations (Asian,
African and Native Americans, children, homeless, immigrants, workers,
women, gays and lesbians, etc.)
- the representation of librarians in literature, film, television, the
arts, etc.

Submissions should: conform to style conventions found in AMERICAN
STUDIES; not exceed 6,000 words (excluding endnotes); and be accompanied by
a 100-word abstract. Authors are asked not to put their names on the
manuscript. All inquires should be addressed to issue editors.


Send ONE copy of the manuscript to EACH of the issue editors:

Wayne A. Wiegand, Professor Thomas August, Assistant Professor
School of Library and Info. Studies Dept. of English, 207 Lind Hall
University of Wisconsin-Madison University of Minnesota
Madison, WI 53706 Minneapolis, MN 55455

and TWO copies and a COMPUTER DISK COPY to:

2120 Wescoe Hall
University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas 66045



Volume 11, no. 4, April 2000

 From: Gerry Hurley <gerry_hurley@SILVERPLATTER.COM>
 Subject: Current Cites April 2000
 Date: Tuesday, 9 May 2000 4:52
 Here's the latest issue of Current Cites.
 Gerry Hurley
 SOLOLIB-L List Owner
 _Current Cites_
 Volume 11, no. 4, April 2000
 Edited by Teri Andrews Rinne
 The Library, University of California, Berkeley, 94720
 ISSN: 1060-2356 -
 Contributors: Terry Huwe, Michael Levy, Leslie Myrick,
 Jim Ronningen, Lisa Rowlison, Roy Tennant
 Editor's Note: Our apologies for the recent 'character set'
 problems experienced by some of our subscribers. We believe that we
 solved the problem with this issue, but if we haven't, please let me
 know. In the meantime, visit our web site for the full-featured
 version of our publication.
 Brown, John Seely, and Duguid, Paul. "Special Issue with Excerpts
 from: The Social Life of Information" First Monday 5 (4) (April 3,
 2000) (; Brown, John Seely
 and Paul Duguid, _The Social Life of Information_, Boston, MA:
 Harvard Business School Press, 2000. - The book has been on the New
 York Times Bestseller list, and an early manuscript was published here
 on First Monday a few years back. Now the netzine is publishing the
 table of contents, introduction, and first three chapters for the
 online audience to review. If you haven't browsed it in a bookstore,
 take a look here, for free. Iconoclastic and unflinching in their
 analysis, the authors skewer the many excesses of media hyperbole
 about information technology and the Internet. A refreshing focus on
 how people use -- and fail to use -- technology emerges from the text,
 a universal dilemma that librarians have been speaking to for years.
 An excellent read. - TH
 Buehler, Marianne. "U.S. Federal Government CIOs: Information
 Technology's New Managers - Preliminary Findings" Journal of
 Government Information 27 (1) (January/February 2000): 29-45. -
 "Elements of efficiency that customers can measure are the time they
 spend standing in line or being placed on hold at the end of a phone
 connection attempting to access information." But hasn't information
 technology made all that go away? I'm sure you know from experience
 (and inference from Buehler's quote above) that the revolution is far
 from complete, and some government agencies have been among the most
 recalcitrant. This article examines one aspect of recent Congressional
 and Executive mandates for improvement: the employment of chief
 information officers as agents for change. The Clinger-Cohen
 Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-106)
 and Clinton's Executive Order 13011 have been in effect long enough
 that the author felt a survey was in order, and she reports on
 compliance, the nature of the CIO position in practice, and impacts on
 agency information policies. The oversight roles of the General
 Accounting Office and the Office of Management and Budget are also
 described. As systems analysts know, the organization is an integral
 part of the problem, and can be part of the solution, too; these first
 CIOs are in a position to address the "pervasive waste in government
 IT spending and inexusably poor consumer-service systems" and take
 action. - JR
 Burk, Roberta. "Don't Be Afraid of E-Books" Library Journal 125(7)
 (April 15, 2000): 42-45. - There has been a lot of hype lately about
 e-books and how they are poised to transform the way in which we
 purchase and read books. This article goes beyond the hype by
 describing how one library has successfully added e-books and their
 associated readers to their collection. Ebooks that do not require
 specialized hardware (such as those offered by NetLibrary) are not
 covered in this article. A sidebar highlights several types of
 hardware- and software-based ebook systems. It is too early to tell
 what impact these devices may have on libraries, but this article is
 an important early report on how at least one library is being
 successful at integrating this type of material into their array of
 services. - RT
 Carr, Sara and Vincent Kiernan. "For-Profit Web Venture Seeks to
 Replicate the University Experience Online" The Chronicle of
 Higher Education (April 14, 2000): A59-A60. - Five educational and
 cultural institutions have come together to construct a for-profit web
 site that seeks to recreate not just university courses, but also the
 intellectual milieu of a university campus. Partner institutions
 include Columbia University, the British Library, the Cambridge
 University Press, the London School of Economics and Political
 Science, the New York Public Library, and the Smithsonian
 Institution's National Museum of Natural History, with possible
 additional participants joining later. Called Fathom
 (, the business will not grant degrees or
 create courses, but will market courses developed by its members.
 Although fees will be charged for courses and some online content,
 much of the content of the web site will be available for free once
 the site opens later this year. - RT
 Floyd, Michael. "Blowing XML Bubbles" Web Techniques (March
 2000) ( - The hype
 surrounding XML has been ubiquitous enough to filter even into those
 circles which generally avoid structured text issues. Floyd explores
 the ever-expanding 'XML bubble' in a series of email interviews with a
 handful of representatives of some of the most pneumatic bubble
 blowers in the XML community: Reid Conrad from Extensibility, Bob
 Bickel from Bluestone Software, Coco Jaenicke from eXcelon, and Marie
 Wieck from the IBM Network Computing Software Division. The questions
 and answers explore: the roles and uses of XML (integration, exchange,
 content management) in the B2B and publishing communities, and whether
 the standard is seen to have fractured or aggregated different user
 communities; when XML might not be suitable (these evangelists were
 hard-pressed to find examples); what its limitations are; and a
 rundown of some of the most interesting innovative uses of XML the
 participants have come across. - LM
 Guernsey, Lisa. "Unplugged on Campus, but Always Connected" New York
 Times (April 20, 2000): Section D, p. 1 - Focusing on a small liberal
 arts college, Mount St. Mary College in New York State, wireless
 technology and networks in the academic setting are seen as a
 relatively inexpensive means of providing network access. Wireless
 connectivity has so permeated the daily existence at this college that
 students, faculty and librarians are always connected, whether in the
 dorms, the library or the classroom. As with many schools, computer
 labs and offices had already been wired for high speed access but the
 problem was how to extend this to classrooms, dormitories and
 libraries without breaking the bank. Working with a company called
 Proxim the wireless network was installed, and students were given
 discounts for wireless adapter cards. The network consists of access
 points, or hubs, that are plugged into the existing network at a cost
 far less than a hardwired solution. With rapidly improving technology
 network speed is far greater than dial-up modems but still lags
 hardwired networks. - ML
 "The Next Chapter" 2600 17(1) (Spring 2000): p. 5-8. - We
 certainly wouldn't cite anything from 2600, the "hacker quarterly," as
 an endorsement of illegal hacking or as a validation of the more
 dubious claims made in its pages, but it's worth looking at because
 it's the single best source for learning about hacker ethics and
 attitudes. "The Next Chapter" is of interest because it includes,
 straight from the horse's mouth, typical arguments offered in defense:
 that hackers are benign investigators performing a service by
 uncovering ways to exploit security weaknesses, that freedom of speech
 overrides intellectual property protections, and that large media and
 communications companies are inherently tyrannical and deserve to be
 attacked. Specifically, it addresses the fact that the 2600 web site
 and others are being sued by the Motion Picture Association of America
 for publishing the deCSS code which can be used to defeat access
 controls on DVDs. (The essay isn't clearly attributed to "Emmanuel
 Goldstein," editor Eric Corley's pseudonym taken from Orwell's 1984,
 but I'm assuming it's his work since it fits the editorial pattern set
 in previous issues.) Other interesting pieces include a thank-you note
 from Kevin Mitnick to the readership, and of course many examples of
 the "how-to" articles which attract the attention of lawyers and FBI
 agents. If 2600 is new to you, it may help to know that it is
 something of an institution, having been in print since 1984, and is
 just one manifestation of a community that has employed Usenet, chat
 rooms, the web and other less obvious methods to stay connected. - JR
 Pack, Thomas. "Epublishing: Revolution or Virtual Vanity Press?"
 Econtent (April/May 2000): 52-56. - Pack offers yet another look
 at the double-edged sword that is e-publishing, and investigates some
 of the implications for information professionals of the
 e-self-publishing revolution. What, Pack asks, are the implications
 for libraries of the growing spate of e-publication? Is it merely
 adding to the problem of information overload? Without the traditional
 editorial vetting constraints on what gets published, how will
 librarians be able to sort the wheat from the chaff? On a more
 technical level, what issues will arise in the realm of e-cataloguing,
 e-ordering and e-purchasing? His focus here is on's
 eMatter initiative, which is poised to become a revolutionary forum
 for serialized works in the manner of Dickens' A Christmas Carol; all
 sorts of shorter works of non-fiction and fiction, how-tos, and
 technical manuals, among others. has also established
 itself as a place for published authors to offer out-of-print titles
 to which they hold copyright. Needless to say, scholarly publication
 is another can of worms altogether. Whereas the scientific community
 has taken swift advantage of scholarly web publishing consortia for
 expediting dissemination of time-sensitive findings and fostering
 interactive scholarship, humanities scholarship, despite generalized
 rankling over 2-to-3-year backlogs at some major print journals, seems
 slow to accept web publication as a viable standard. Pack's article
 addresses the familiar concern that in many cases the e-publishing
 process bypasses a certain level of critical vetting by agents,
 editors, scholarly readers and publishers. He explores how the eMatter
 initiative is facing this issue by striving to assure quality in its
 offerings and by educating its users to make intelligent choices. In
 the place of traditional critical vetting stands The Market, along
 with a "decency" criterion which proscribes hate language, slander and
 obscenity. Further, a proposed e-manuscript must run the gauntlet of
 the 4 Bs (i.e., that it is suitable for bathroom, bedroom, bus and
 beach). The website offers a standard box of tools for
 making critical choices, such as editorial promotion and highlighting
 of the highest quality material, dynamically sorted best-seller lists,
 along with offering reader reviews and author bios. It also backs up
 its transactions with a moneyback guarantee. - LM
 Trehub, Aaron. "Creating Fee-Based Online Services: A New Role for
 Academic Librarians" Library Hi Tech 17(4) (1999): 372-389. - In
 this overview of two fee-based services at the University of Illinois
 Library at Urbana-Champaign, Trehub makes a case for libraries and
 Librarians as "start-to-finish content creators." New opportunities
 opened up by the Internet and the web have allowed the University of
 Illinois to migrate the Bibliography of Slavic and East European
 Studies (ABSEES) and the Illinois Researcher Information Service
 (IRIS) into web-based subscription services. He outlines the basic
 ingredients necessary for a successful fee-based service, which
 including high quality content, adequate hardware and software,
 programming and systems support, administrative support, an
 advertising budget, skilled bibliographers and indexers and
 institutional commitment. Responding to the debate over fee vs. free
 services Trehub believes that fee services can augment and support
 traditional library services. While the case is forcefully made, the
 problem is that the IRIS database of federal and private funding
 opportunities, is subsidizing the more "traditional" bibliographic
 guide ABSEES. The question then remains whether something like ABSEES
 can survive in the marketplace without such outside financial
 assistance. In any case, such ventures for Trehub have the added
 benefit of promoting what has been dubbed "intellectually-based
 librarianship" and thereby raising professional status. - ML
 "Secure Your Data" Web Techniques (April 2000)
 ( - April's Web
 Techniques features a handful of articles addressing various ways of
 stopping up those nasty security holes we inevitably open ourselves up
 to when we head for the net, whether as surfers, e-consumers,
 information technologists, or administrators. Aviel D. Rubin, in
 "None of Your E-Business"
 (, examines the
 web user's vulnerability to identity theft, surveillance and
 monitoring due to greatly enhanced means for the aggregation and
 cross-referencing of personal information amassed through snooping
 into email, cookies, e-business transactions (whether at e-bookstores,
 e-groceries, or e-pharmacies -- 50 packs of cigarettes in a month?
 what would your insurance provider think?). Rubin offers a few weapons
 to fend off e-salesmen, the boss, the system admin, or the hacker down
 the hall with a packet sniffer, including: using proxy servers, PGP
 encryption, certificates, secure channels, and clearing your cache.
 Lincoln Stein, in "Security in an 'Always On' World"
 (, realized early
 that his new "Always On" DSL service translated to "Always Exposed."
 You may not have a server humming away in your basement, but if you
 do, this article is packed with good advice for hiding IPs, keeping
 your ports probe-free, and protecting your data behind firewalls. Matt
 Curtain, in "On Guard: Fortifying Your Site Against Attack"
 (, outlines how
 to turn your web server into a bastion host, complete with a DMZ
 network (it's a war out there!), cryptography, and security patches.
 Chuck Newman in "Sharing Too Much: The Dangers of Hosting on
 Windows NT" (,
 shares what he learned about NT server security when he was able to
 hack into his ISP's entire file system using a humble File System
 Object. - LM
 Current Cites 11(4) (April 2000) ISSN: 1060-2356
 Copyright 2000 by the Library, University of California, Berkeley.
 All rights reserved.
 Copying is permitted for noncommercial use by computerized bulletin
 board/conference systems, individual scholars, and libraries.
 Libraries are authorized to add the journal to their collections at no
 cost. This message must appear on copied material. All commercial use
 requires permission from the editor. All product names are trademarks
 or registered trade marks of their respective holders. Mention of a
 product in this publication does not necessarily imply endorsement of
 the product. To subscribe to the Current Cites distribution list, send
 the message "sub cites [your name]" to, replacing "[your name]" with your
 name. To unsubscribe, send the message "unsub cites" to the same
 address. Editor: Teri Andrews Rinne,


Volume 11, No 7, July 2000

Date: Thu, 3 Aug 2000 10:27:59 -0400
From: Gerry Hurley <gerry_hurley@SILVERPLATTER.COM>
Subject: Current Cites - July 2000

Current Cites
Volume 11, no. 7, July 2000

Edited by Teri Andrews Rinne
The Library, University of California, Berkeley, 94720
ISSN: 1060-2356 -

Contributors: Terry Huwe, Michael Levy, Leslie Myrick, Jim
Ronningen, Lisa Rowlison, Roy Tennant
Arms, William. "Automated Digital Libraries: How Effectively Can
Computers Be Used for the Skilled Tasks of Professional
Librarianship?" D-Lib Magazine 6(7/8)(July/August 2000)
- In Current Cites we don't just cite articles we agree with,
we cite articles we think you should read. This one falls into
the latter category. In it Arms (a computer scientist active in
digital library development) posits a question that he then
forgets to answer. But what "answer" he does provide is very
disturbing. To begin with, he reduces the question to one of
cost. That is, can automated digital libraries provide an
"acceptable substitute" at a lower cost. Apparently they can,
to someone who thinks Google provides better service than
Inspec, as Arms claims. Unfortunately I do not have the space to
refute Arms' opinion and unsubstantiated arguments that appear
to suggest that automated digital libraries can perform most of
the skilled tasks of professional librarianship. At least he
seems to acknowledge that reference service is likely to
remain too difficult for machines, although he relies on
personal anecdotes when scholarly evidence such as that
published by Bonnie Nardi is close at hand. For those of you who
are librarians, read this piece closely. It largely depicts what
computer scientists think of you, the libraries you have built
and are building, and the value of human-constructed and
maintained library collections and services. It is not a pretty
sight. - RT

Baker, Nicholson. "Deadline: The Author's Desperate Bid to Save
America's Past" The New Yorker (July 24, 2000): 42-61.
- Nicholson Baker is well-known to the library community for
his 1994 and 1996 articles in The New Yorker bemoaning the
demise of the card catalog and taking to task the San Francisco
Public Library for discarding books. He goes on the offensive
once more with a quixotic attempt to save long-runs of American
newspapers from being discarded after the process of
microfilming. As with his other library pieces, Baker is no
detached observer but a fully-fledged participant, actually
forming his own non-profit organization, the American Newspaper
Repository, in an attempt to save numerous sets of historical
newspaper from being sold by the British Library. The
piece highlights some important issues regarding the process of
microfilming for preservation and archival purposes with Baker
severely criticizing the library community for not doing enough
to ensure the preservation of at least some hard copy runs of
newspapers. He is particularly vexed at what he sees as the poor
quality of much microfilming and what he views, rather unfairly,
as the overblown claims of librarian administrators concerning
issues of space and the degradation of much newsprint,
especially from the 19th century. He correctly points out that
with the demise of paper collections that companies such as Bell
& Howell, which owns microfilm negatives for most large
newspapers, has "a near-monopoly on the reproduction rights for
the chief primary sources of twentieth-century history." As with
all his articles the writing is of top quality, especially his
description of a company in New Jersey, the Historic Newspaper
archives, that sells newspapers to give as gifts for particular
birth-dates. This article is sure to cause much debate in the
library world. - ML

Borgman, Christine L. _From Gutenberg to the Global Information
Infrastructure: Access to Information in the Networked World_
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000. - Despite a rather unsatisfying
title,Borgman has succeeded in writing the definitive text book
for digital library courses. Since the author is a professor at
the UCLA library school, and a visiting professor at
Loughborough University in England, this comes as no surprise.
As one expects of a textbook, it is an authoritative overview of
the issues, with frequent references to the supporting
literature. Don't expect to be able to run out and build digital
library collections and services based on what you learn here,
but do expect to have a thorough grounding in the field from
a scholarly perspective. - RT

_Guides to Quality in Visual Resource Imaging_ Council on Library
and Information Resources, 2000 (
- Anyone digitizing visual resources owes it to their project to
study the information at this site. Collected together in one
location is some of the best advice on digital imaging from
top-notch experts in the field. Practical information is offered
on planning a project, selecting a scanner, factors affecting
image quality, measuring quality of digital masters, and file
formats for master files. This is not a static publication, but
will be updated periodically to keep it up-to-date with current
standards and best practices. An excellent resource from the
Association of Research Libraries, the Digital Library
Federation, and the Council on Library and Information
Resources. - RT

_LC21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress_
Washington,DC: National Academy Press, 2000
- This report comprises the findings of a committee of the
National Research Council that reviewed the Library of Congress'
technology practices and initiatives. Although the report
focuses on the Library of Congress, there is much here that can
serve as useful advice for other libraries. Skip over the
sections and chapters that focus directly on the LOC, and find
the parts that deal more broadly with topics that impact (or
will) all libraries. Specific chapters to pay particular
attention to (at least in part) include the introductory chapter
and those on collection development, preservation, and
organization for access. - RT

Miller, Paul. "Interoperability: What is it and Why Should I Want
it?" Ariadne (24) (June 2000)
- Interoperability between digital libraries is essential if
library users are to be offered simple access to a wide variety
of library content and services. Without it, library users must
first discover where all the various digital library collections
can be found, and then go to each one and search them
individually. In this excellent overview, the interoperability
expert for the United Kingdom's eLib Programme defines
interoperability and describes all of its various dimensions in
the digital library context. The web site that the author
manages, Interoperability Focus
is also a good resource for further information. - RT

The Secret Books
( - Okay, secret or not-so-secret
digital bibliophiles: take a break from your monthly Current
Cites reading list to visit this stunning flash- or dhtml-
enhanced photographic interpretation of snippets of various of
Borges' essays on books and libraries, including the ubiquitous
"Library of Babel." Yes, on one plane this site serves as a
glamorous advertisement to buy the photographer's physical book.
But provocative photographic juxtapositions of old books with
snakes, fruit, stone, voodoo candles, inscribed skulls and
mirrors offer up a gorgeous statement on books and materiality
in an ironically digital wrapper, as well as an elegant
conversation between Borges' texts and Kernan's images. - LM

Tennant, Roy. "Beg, Buy, Borrow, License or Steal" LJ Digital
(July 15, 2000)
20000615_15167.asp) - For librarians building digital libraries
in this age of the digital incunabulum, juggling the market
(should we buy? license? scan an out-of-copyright version of?
this or that very expensive digital publication) can make one's
head spin. Our Current Cites colleague Roy Tennant offers some
judicious advice stemming from his experience and expertise as
the SunSITE manager at UC Berkeley, and now as eScholarship Web
& Services Manager at the California Digital Library. Knowing
one's options -- and orchestrating the right mix -- are the key.
Roy outlines the strengths of each of the means he suggests in
his title and provides a sidebar of useful links to help to get
your head on straight. - LM

Young, Jeffrey R. "A Historian Presents the Civil War, Online and
Unfiltered by Historians" NY Times Technology Circuits
- The Valley of the Shadow project
( has been on the web for nearly
five years, but as truly one of the most stunning digital
archive success stories going, it garners renewed mention by
Young on the eve of the release of the CD-ROM version. Under the
aegis of the University of Virginia and the leadership of
history professor Edward L. Ayers, the archive contains some
5000 pages of digitized photographs, newspaper articles,
records, wills, census figures, and diaries covering the years
1857 to 1870 and issuing from two representative counties,
one in Pennsylvania and one in Virginia. In his article, Young
characterizes it as a "do-it-yourself history kit," where users
can let their own research into the sources lead them to their
own conclusions. With the boon of database searching, modern
users can find connections which might have taken pre-Valley
researchers an entire sabbatical to cobble together. And, as
Young points out, the sources themselves take a refreshingly
wide cross-section, from a slave woman's letter to her husband
on her impending sale to traders, to the insipid diary entries
of an upper-class teenager. The CD-ROM version, due out next
month, is being touted as an interactive hybrid of multimedia
and scholarship, or an "interactive archive." - LM

Current Cites 11(7) (July 2000) ISSN: 1060-2356
Copyright 2000 by the Library, University of California,
Berkeley. All rights reserved.

Copying is permitted for noncommercial use by computerized bulletin
board/conference systems, individual scholars, and
libraries. Libraries are authorized to add the journal to their
collections at no cost. This message must appear on copied
material. All commercial use requires permission from the editor.
All product names are trademarks or registered trade marks
of their respective holders. Mention of a product in this
publication does not necessarily imply endorsement of the product.
To subscribe to the Current Cites distribution list, send the
message "sub cites [your name]" to,
replacing "[your name]" with your name. To unsubscribe, send the
message "unsub cites" to the same address. Editor: Teri
Andrews Rinne,


D-LIB Magazine

April 2000

Date: Tue, 18 Apr 2000 11:00:56 -0400
From: Richard Hill <>
Subject: ASIS-L: April 2000 Issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available.

[Forwarded. Dick Hill]

The April 2000 issue of D-Lib Magazine is now
available. The table of contents is at This month's issue
features three stories, a book review, nine 'In Brief' items, and a
generous selection of 'Clips and Pointers'. The Featured Collection for
the April issue is the David Rumsey Collection of maps and other
cartographic materials.

D-Lib has mirror sites at the following locations:

UKOLN: The UK Office for Library and Information Networking, Bath,

The Australian National University Sunsite, Canberra, Australia

State Library of Lower Saxony and the University Library of Göettingen,
Göettingen, Germany

Universidad de Belgrano, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

(If the mirror site closest to you is not displaying the April issue of
D-Lib Magazine at this time, please check back later. There is a delay
between the time of the magazine is released in the United States and
the time when the mirroring process has been completed.)

The stories in the April 2000 issue of D-Lib Magazine are:

Collection-Based Persistent Digital Archives - Part 2
Reagan Moore, Chaitan Baru, Arcot Rajasekar, Bertram Ludaescher, Richard
Marciano, Michael Wan, Wayne Schroeder, and Amarnath Gupta, San Diego
Supercomputer Center

MyLibrary: Personalized Electronic Services in the Cornell University
Suzanne Cohen, John Fereira, Angela Horne, Bob Kibbee, Holly
Mistlebauer, and Adam Smith, Cornell University

Creating Accessible Digital Imagery
Clare L. Birdsey, University of Westminster

The 'In Brief' items are:

Put Yourself in the PIE - The HeadLine Personal Information Environment
Anne Gambles, London School of Economics

A New Webzine: High Energy Physics Libraries Webzine
Susan Leech O'Neale and Corrado Pettenati, CERN

The British Universities Newsreel Project Database
Luke McKernan, British Universities Film &amp; Video Council

Source Code Released for MyLibrary@NCState
Keith Morgan, North Carolina State University

"Metadata for Digital Preservation: The Cedars Project Outline
Specification" Draft Now Available for Comment
Kelly Russell, The University of Leeds

Overseas Opportunity for Special Librarian
Mary Muller, U.S. Department of State

Talking About Public Access: PACS-L's First Decade
Walt Crawford, Research Libraries Group

Department of Energy’s PrePRINT Network Up and Running
Lorrie Johnson, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and
Technical Information

New Open Access Resources at
Megan Schade,

Bonnie Wilson
Managing Editor
D-Lib Magazine


May 2000

Date: Tue, 16 May 2000 10:20:58 -0400
From: Richard Hill <>
Subject: ASIS-L: [Dlib-subscribers] The May 2000 Issue of D-Lib Magazine is now 

[Forwarded. Contents below. Dick Hill]


The May 2000 issue of D-Lib Magazine is now
available. The table of contents is at This month's issue
features three stories, six 'In Brief' items, and a generous selection
of 'Clips and Pointers'. The Featured Collection for the May issue is
The Department of Entomology web site, National Museum of Natural
History, Smithsonian Institution.

D-Lib has mirror sites at the following locations:

UKOLN: The UK Office for Library and Information Networking, Bath,

The Australian National University Sunsite, Canberra, Australia

State Library of Lower Saxony and the University Library of Göettingen,
Göettingen, Germany

Universidad de Belgrano, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

(If the mirror site closest to you is not displaying the May issue of
D-Lib Magazine at this time, please check back later. There is a delay
between the time of the magazine is released in the United States and
the time when the mirroring process has been completed.)

The stories in the May 2000 issue of D-Lib Magazine are:

If Information Wants to Be Free . . . Then Who's Going to Pay for It?
Richard T. Kaser, National Federation of Abstracting & Information

A Question of Access SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic
Richard K. Johnson, SPARC

Who Is Going to Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?
Lawrence Rudner, University of Maryland, College Park

The 'In Brief' items are:

CNRI Announces New Version of the Handle System
Constance McLindon, Corporation for National Research Initiatives

New Knowledge Database for Virtual Heritage
Scot Thrane Refsland, Gifu University, Japan

All That JAS: Journal Abbreviation Sources
Gerry McKiernan, Iowa State University Library

Asking the Experts: Digital Reference and the Virtual Reference Desk
Joann M. Wasik, The Virtual Reference Desk

JSTOR's General Science Collection Gains 220 New Participating Libraries

Carol MacAdam, JSTOR

Report on the "Managing the Digital Future of Libraries" Conference Held
in Moscow
George Andrew Spencer, Indiana University Digital Library Program

Bonnie Wilson
Managing Editor
D-Lib Magazine


July/August 2000

Return-path: <> 
Date: Tue, 18 Jul 2000 09:27:46 -0400
From: Richard Hill <>
Subject: ASIS-L: The July/August 2000 Issue of D-Lib Magazine is now available.



The July/August 2000 issue of D-Lib Magazine is now
available. The table of contents is at This month's issue
features five stories, five 'In Brief' items, and a generous selection
of 'Clips and Pointers'. In addition, Erich Kesse, Director, Digital
Library Center, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida. has
provided a review of the book, Moving Theory Into Practice: Digital
Imaging for Libraries and Archives, by Anne R. Kenney and Oya Y. Rieger,
editors and principal authors. Research Libraries Group. 2000. The
Featured Collection for the July/August issue is Jeffrey Thomas' site,
The Castles of Wales.

D-Lib has mirror sites at the following locations:

UKOLN: The UK Office for Library and Information Networking, Bath,

The Australian National University Sunsite, Canberra, Australia

State Library of Lower Saxony and the University Library of Göettingen,
Göettingen, Germany

Universidad de Belgrano, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan

(If the mirror site closest to you is not displaying the July/August
issue of D-Lib Magazine at this time, please check back later. There is
a delay between the time of the magazine is released in the United
States and the time when the mirroring process has been completed.)

The stories in the July/August 2000 issue of D-Lib Magazine are:

Automated Digital Libraries: How Effectively Can
Computers Be Used for the Skilled Tasks of Professional Librarianship?
William Y. Arms, Cornell University

Robust Hyperlinks and Locations
Thomas A. Phelps and Robert Wilensky, University of California, Berkeley

Designing Documents to Enhance the Performance of Digital Libraries:
Time, Space, People and a Digital Library in London
Gregory Crane, Tufts University

Virginia Dons FEDORA: A Prototype for a Digital Object Repository
Thornton Staples and Ross Wayland, University of Virginia

Preserving the Authenticity of Contingent Digital Objects: The
InterPARES Project
Anne J. Gilliland-Swetland, University of California, Los Angeles, and
Philip B. Eppard, University at Albany, State University of New York

The 'In Brief' items are:

Digital Libraries 2000, Fifth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries
Fernando Adrian Das Neves, Edward A. Fox,
Robert France, Marcos Goncalves, and
Hussein Suleman, Virginia Tech

Institute for Legal and Ethical Issues in the New Information Era:
Challenges for Libraries, Museums and Archives
Tomas A. Lipinski, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Report from the NKOS Workshop, Held in San Antonio, Texas, on June 7,
Linda Hill, University of California, Santa Barbara

Dublin Core Releases Recommended Qualifiers
Stuart Weibel and Eric Miller, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative

SFX Beta Testing Underway (Ex Libris Press Release)
Oren Beit Arie, Ex Libris (USA) Inc.

Bonnie Wilson
Managing Editor
D-Lib Magazine

DLib-Subscribers mailing list



Volume 1, Issue 4/5

Date: Tue, 23 May 2000 13:09:10 +0200
Organization: International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID)
Subject: FID competitive intelligence publication
From: Theresa Stanton <>

"Competitive Intelligence from the Perspective of Today's Information

The International Federation for Information and Documentation, FID,
announces the availability of Volume 1, Issue 4/5 of its international
journal, the FID Review, on 'Competitive Intelligence from the
Perspective of Today's Information Professional'. Guest Editor: Irene
Wormell, Head of Informetrics, Royal School of Library and Information
Science, Denmark.

Order your copy directly from the FID Secretariat. Email: <>
Fax: +31-70-3140667. Price: NLG 120 (Euros: 55), 108 pages. (25%
discount for FID Members).

- Canongia, Claudia and Helia Chaves (IBICT), Brazil and Sueli Maffia et
al. COMUT - Interlibrary Loan Programme, Brazil 'The Potentialities of
Competitive Intelligence Tools for the Automatic Treatment of
Information - Case Study: the database of Brazilian Theses'
- Carro Juan R. and Lourdes L. Vilaragut, Consultoria Biomundi, IDICT,
Cuba. 'Competitive Intelligence and Information Technology: relationship
and integration'.
- Fleitas Ravelo, Irma and Eduardo Orozco Silva, Consultoria Biomundi,
IDICT, Cuba 'Corporate Profiles and Company Directories as Tools for
Competitive Intelligence'.
- Gold, Dieter, CRV, Voreppe France. 'The Information Professionals: an
asset for competitive intelligence'.
- Kalseth, Karl interviews Preben Hansen, Swedish Institute of Computer
Science (SICS). 'Limiting the Gap Between Information Need and
Satisfactory Result'.
- Klein, Chuck. Amcon Marketing Strategy International, Israel.
'Overcoming Net Disease: The Risks in depending solely on the Internet
for Competitive Intelligence Research'.
- Marin Llanes, Luis and Juan Carro Cartaya, Consultoria Biomundi,
IDICT, Cuba; Rafael Espin Andrade, Technical Institute, Havana, Cuba.
'Some Information Analysis Techniques for the Competitive Intelligence
- Milano Jr., Angelo, Engineer, PETROBAS, Brazil, Henry Dou, (CCRM)
France, and Luc Quoniam, Université de Toulon, France. 'Where to Place
Competitive Intelligence in Your Company'.
- Nakagawa, Juro. Tokyo Keizai University, Japan. 'Risk Management and
Information Strategy - with regard to the Asian Economic Crisis'.
- Sreenivasulu, V. (INSDOC), India. 'Building the Competitive
Intelligence Knowledge: processes and activities in a corporate
- Tarapanoff, Kira, Rosangela Gomes da Nobrega and Patricia Marie Jeane
Cormier, University of Brasilia, Brazil. 'Competitive Intelligence and
Scenarios: a methodological proposal for a case study in Brazil'. 
- Wormell, Irene. Head of the Centre for Informetric Studies, Royal
School of Library and Information Science, Denmark. 'Adding Values to
the Retrieved Information'.
- Wormell, Irene. Head of the Centre for Informetric Studies, Royal
School of Library and Information Science, Denmark. 'Editorial'.
- 'Document Delivery Survey' (quarterly insert). Bernard Williams,
United Kingdom.
- News Review (containing the latest news on the activities of the
International Federation for Information and Documentation, FID.

Please Note: Review copies are also available to Editors upon request.



Call for papers - special issue

Date: Wed, 28 Jun 2000 19:30:02 -0400
From: Patricia Fletcher <fletcher@UMBC.EDU>
Subject: ASIS-L: E-Gov Call for Papers


Special Issue of Government Information Quarterly on E-Government

A recent U.S. Presidential memo on electronic government (12/17/1999) addressed the opportunities and challenges of creating an electronic government (e-government) that provides 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, one-stop-services for its citizens. This memo is a continuation of presidential policy that began with the 1993 National Performance Review and the resulting Access America report challenged federal agencies to develop new and innovative electronic options that would enhance service delivery and government administration. Today we can see the beginning stages of such e-government offerings, from the IRS e-file system to the State of Arizona's "Service Arizona" electronic delivery channel for all transactions with the Department of Motor Vehicles. 

This special issue of GIQ will focus on the research, policy and management issues related to enabling e-government technology applications that are relevant to creating an e-government at any level of government. A new GAO report (Electronic Government-Federal Initiatives are Evolving but they Face Significant Challenges, GAO/T-AIMD/GGD-00179) highlights some of the real concerns and challenges that face any level of government as they move to an electronic delivery of services and information. The highly complex and often contradictory policy environment, the rapidly evolving technology environment, the lack of adequately trained IT professionals in the workforce, the need for effective executive level leadership and support, and the creation of a "citizen as customer" focus are all important variables which will effect the success of any e-government initiative.

For this special issue of GIQ, articles should address any of the above issues as well as electronic authentication and security, currently enacted or pending legislation and regulations which address e-government , online privacy, public/private partnership models, cyber terrorism, strategies for ensuring customer usablility of e-government applications or the development, implementation and evaluation of current e-government applications. 

Submissions are to be limited to 20 double-spaced pages using APA style. 

Submissions will be accepted electronically.

Submissions must be "in hand" no later than September 15, 2000 to allow for peer review, feedback and revisions. The anticipated publication date is Spring, 2001.

For more information and to submit articles for review, contact:

Patricia Diamond Fletcher, co-editor

Department of Information Systems

University of Maryland Baltimore County

1000 Hilltop Circle

Baltimore, MD 21250


410-455-1073 (fax)

Stephen H. Holden, co-editor

Department of Information Systems

University of Maryland Baltimore County

1000 Hilltop Circle

Baltimore, MD 21250


410-455-1073 (fax)

Patricia Diamond Fletcher, Ph.D.
Associate Professor & Graduate Program Director
Department of Information Systems
University of Maryland Baltimore County
Baltimore MD 21250



Call for papers

Date: Thu, 15 Jun 2000 13:11:34 -0400
From: Amanda Spink <spink@IST.PSU.EDU>
Subject: ASIS-L: Call for Papers


Call for papers for a Special Issue on: Issues of Context in IR

Co-Editors: Colleen Cool (Queens College) and Amanda Spink (Penn State)

Information retrieval is an interdisciplinary area of research that
increasingly draws on theories and methodologies from human information
information behavior and information seeking research, from multiple
perspectives. In recent years the research in this area has focused on
issues of context and situation, and how they relate to interactive IR
processes. The purpose of this special issue is to explicitly address
problems and issues in the conceptualization and empirical investigation
of context in relation to interactive IR. Relevant topics include, but
are not limited to:

- Models and theories of IR related to context-based IR

- Empirical studies of the role of context, task and information
seeking in IR, broadly construed to include such phenomena as:

Role of contextual and situational aspects in IR interaction among
various populations.

Contextual aspects of successive searching or related searches

- Effects of context and situation on relevance judgments in IR

- Interdisciplinary conceptualizations of context and situation,
and their relevance to IR.

- IR in non-traditional contexts: museums, prisons, Web, special
archives, and other environments.

All papers submitted will be refereed. Each paper should not exceed 4,000
words. The deadline for submission is December 1, 2000. The format for
papers should follow IP&M guidelines, that can be found on the journal's
web site: Authors should submit three
paper copies and disc copy in MS Word or rft file to:

Dr. Colleen Cool
Graduate School of Library and Information Studies
Queens College/City University of New York
Kissena Blvd.
Flushing, New York 11367
Tel: (718) 997-3790 Fax: (718) 997-3791

Dr. Amanda Spink
School of Information Sciences and Technology
The Pennsylvania State University
511 Rider I Building, 120 S. Burrowes St
University Park PA 16801
Tel: (814) 865-4454 Fax: (814) 865-5604




Date: Fri, 21 Apr 2000 16:31:24 +0100
Sender: Open Lib/Info Sci Education Forum <>
From: Professor Tom Wilson <>
Subject: Information Research: Special issue announcement


Information Research: an international electronic journal

Call for Papers for A Special Issue on

Explicitly Representing Knowledge: Theories, Practices, and

Co-Editors: Jian Qin, Barbara Kwasnik, & Dmitri Roussinov

Knowledge representation is an interdisciplinary area that draws
theories and methodologies from computer science, information
science, linguistics, mathematics, psychology, and many other
related disciplines. It involves concepts of surrogation,
ontology, reasoning, computation, and human expression. In the
digital and network environment, knowledge representation is
gaining increasing attention from researchers as well as
practitioners. The information communication needs in the
research community require knowledge sharing and collaboration,
and those in the practicing communities need knowledge for
decision support. Technology advancement and the changing
working environment have expanded the research areas in
knowledge representation compared to just a few decades ago. The
purpose of this special issue is to highlight new research in
knowledge representation. The topics include, but are not
limited to:

- Representation theories: representation as surrogates;
representations of belief, intention, time, space, action,
events, and material; formal conceptualization; description

- Ontology: ontology and knowledge bases; principles, methods,
and tools for developing ontologies; ontology markup language;
evaluation of ontologies.

- Reasoning: ontology-supported intelligent reasoning.

- Human expression: natural language; vocabulary control;
classification theory; linguistic applications in knowledge
representation and ontology.

All papers submitted will be refereed. Each paper should not
exceed 5,000 words. The deadline for submission is October 15,
2000. The special issue is planned to appear in the January 2001
issue. We accept electronic submissions prepared in HTML in
accordance with the Instructions to Authors at

Email address:
Jian Qin <>
Barbara Kwasnik <>
Dmitri Roussinov <>

If you wish to send a hard copy, please use the following
address (enclosing a copy of the paper on disc):

Dr. Jian Qin
School of Information Studies
Syracuse University
4-206 Center for Science and Technology
Syracuse, NY 13244


July 2000 issue

Date: Fri, 21 Jul 2000 15:27:30 +0100

From: "Professor Tom Wilson" <>

To: "Inf Res List" <>

Subject: New issue of Information Research

Reply-to: Prof. Tom Wilson <>

Priority: normal

A new issue of Information Research is now available at:

Here is the editorial:

Information Research has been selected as a 'key resource' by the Links2Go site. Links2Go reports as follows:

"The Links2Go Key Resource award differs from other awards in twoimportant ways. First, it is objective. Most awards rely on hand selection by one or more "experts," many of whom have only looked at tens or hundreds of thousands of pages in bestowing their awards. Selection for these awards means no more than that one person, somewhere, noticed your page and liked it enough to select it. The Key Resource award, on the other hand, is based on an analysis of millions of web pages. Any group or organization who conducts a similar analysis will arrive at similar conclusions. When Links2Go says your page is a Key Resource, we mean that your page is one of the most relevant pages related to a particular topic on the web today, using an objective statistical measure applied to an extremely large data set."

"Second, the Key Resource award is exclusive. We get literally hundreds of people requesting that their page be added to one or more topics per week. All of these requests are denied. The only way to get listed as a Key Resource is to achieve enough popularity for our analysis to select your pages automatically. We do not accept fees, offers of link exchanges, free advertising, or bartered livestock as inducements to add new sites to our lists. Fewer than one page in one thousand will ever be selected as a Key Resource."

In other words this is strong confirmation of the status that the journal has now attained in the field. The Links2Go button now appears on the top page for the journal.

Now my usual Call for Papers for the next issue of the journal, which will be Volume 6 Number 1. That issue will appear in October and will be devoted mainly to a special issue on Web research, edited by Dr. Amanda Spink of Pennsylvania State University. However, other papers (refereed or working) are also welcome and should be sent to our Regional Editors or to myself, following the {HYPERLINK " s/infres/author1.html"}Instructions to Authors.

There are four refereed papers in this issue – on diverse topics, which also illustrate the international character of Information Research: we have papers from Australia, Lithuania, Ireland and the USA. The first, Information seeking by blind and sight impaired citizens: an ecological study, by Kirsty Williamson, Don Schauder and Amanda Bow, reports a study which investigated information seeking by sight impaired people, with particular emphasis on the role of the Internet. The authors note that:

"Information needs were found to be much the same as for older adults, as indicated in a number of different studies. Information sources were also shown to be similar to those used by older people, with the exception that there was considerable use of organisations for the blind and sight impaired, especially by those who were living alone. Contextual factors, both personal and societal, were found to be particularly significant in relation to the use of various sources of information, including the Internet."

The second paper, by Dr. Marius Povilas Saulauskas of Vilnius University, Lithuania, is, The spell of HOMO IRRETITUS: amidst superstitions and dreams, is a change from our usual papers in that it is an 'opinion piece' - a thought-provoking examination of the idea of the 'information society' and the place of 'netted man' (homo irretitus) in that society. Please let both the author and myself have feedback on this paper.

In the third paper Frederic Adam and Brian Fitzgerald of University College Cork debate the "status of the information systems field" and highlight some of the fundamental choices facing IS researchers. They conclude that:

The point is to determine how far the IS field has gone in comparison with other fields in the social sciences and whether it has reached the stage of its history when the nature of research in IS can shift orientation towards more attention to the long term establishment of an intellectual core and stronger identity.

The final refereed paper is Information exchange in virtual communities: a typology, by Gary Burnett of Florida State University. The aim of the typology is to "provide a mechanism for assessing the characteristics of virtual communities in terms of their support for information exchange" and to "enhance our understanding of virtual communities as information environments."

This issue also has two Working Papers – the first reports on an ethnographic investigation into an attempt at innovation in the field of information management in a less-developed country in East Africa, while the second is a report on the present status and future prospects of Schools Library Services in the UK.

For this issue I have left the links to the electronic dissertations on the Contents page. This feature has attracted a great deal of interest from around the world and I hope to have links to electronic dissertations in other places before long. The demand is evidently high: the home page for the electronic dissertations 'library' has received about 700 hits since January and two of the three dissertations have had more than 800 hits. The third dissertation lacked a counter until recently, through a production oversight, and, consequently, shows a much lower number of hits.

We now have more than 1000 registered readers from all over the world and this, perhaps, is a better indicator of readership than hits, although the fact that readers do not have to register suggests that there may be many regular readers who do not bother to register.

In April 2001 Professor Charles Oppenheim will produce an issue on intellectual property in the digital age. We also have plans for another special issue - possibly for January 2001 - on knowledge representation and ontology. More on that in a future e-mail message to our 'registered readers'.

Note also that we now have an international {HYPERLINK " .html"}Editorial Board and if one of the people on the Board is close to you, contact him or her about submitting a paper. We are willing, of course, to consider papers from anywhere in the world, not simply those from the regions indicated. I act as General Editor and will accept submissions from Western Europe, the Middle and Far East, and Australasia.



volume 51 no 7

Return-path: <> 
Date: Fri, 14 Apr 2000 11:36:25 -0400
From: Richard Hill <>
To:, nancy@CNI.ORG,,,,,,
Subject: ASIS-L: JASIS TOC: Volume 51, Number 7

Journal of the American Society for Information Science

[Note: At the bottom are URLs for viewing contents of JASIS from past
issues. Below the contents of Bert Boyce's "In This Issue" has been cut
into the Table of Contents.]


In This Issue
Bert R. Boyce
We begin this issue with four diverse papers on clustering as a retrieval
method and end with three even more diverse papers on user study. 


Order-Theoretical Ranking
Claudio Carpineto and Giovanni Romano
First we have Carpineto and Romano, who make use of a clustered document
file based upon set inclusion relations among terms, merge queries into the
clustered document space and consider the shortest path between a query and
document as the basis of a retrieval status value. Typical hierarchical
clustering methods do not produce all likely clusters due to arbitrary tie
breaking, and fail to discriminate between documents with significantly
different degrees of similarity to a query. In their concept lattice
ranking (CLR), a lattice is built on the basis of term co-occurrence in
documents and supplemented rather than totally re-computed with the
addition of each new document or query. 
Using the CACM and CISI collections and queries, weighted term vectors
were computed to be used in best match retrieval, and a hierarchical single
link clustering using cosign ranking, for comparison with CLR. Lattice
construction took 15 minutes for CACM and 2 hours for CISI. Both best match
and CLR return better precision and recall measures than hierarchical
clustering, but little difference appears between the two. A comparison of
CLR and hierarchical clustering on unmatched documents was then carried out
using expected search length as a measure. CLR outperforms and may be
useful in discovering non-matching relevant documents. 

A Linear Algebra Measure of Cluster Quality
Laura A. Mather
Mather proposes a new measure of cluster effectiveness independent of
knowledge of retrieval measures computed for queries on the clustered file,
and based on the theory that the clustering quality of a term document
matrix is determined by the disjointedness of the terms across the
clusters. The ideal clustering case is that where terms which occur in one
cluster occur only in that cluster, or, that is to say, are mutually
exclusive across clusters. Such clusters occur if and only if the matrix is
``block diagonal,'' that is to say, has rows and columns that can be
permuted to produce a matrix that has some set of blocks on the diagonal of
the matrix that contain nonzero elements, while the remainder contain zero
elements. The singular values of each of the blocks of a block diagonal
matrix are the same as the singular values of a block diagonal matrix when
terms are disjoint and as the structure diverges from block diagonal the
two sets of singular values diverge as more term intersection occurs. A
measure of the distance between the singular values of the term document
matrix and the cluster matrices indicates cluster value, but is difficult
to interpret. By taking random permutations of the matrix and creating
clusters one can approximate the mean and standard deviation and by
subtracting the mean from the actual observed clustering and dividing by
the standard deviation of the samples, one can produce the number of
standard deviations from a random clustering for the observation. These
values can be compared to indicate the best clustering. The computation of
the singular values of many large matrices is required and would be
expensive. Experimentally the metric correlates significantly with Shaw's F
and with the precision measure, increasing as these measures increase. 

A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval 
Sandor Dominich
Dominich reviews the basic retrieval models concentrating upon the vector
space and probabilistic representations. He shows that these retrieval
models define systems of vicinities of documents around queries which can
both be represented by a similarity space and thus have a unified
mathematical definition. 

Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System 
Bin Zhu and Hsinchun Chen
Zhu and Chen compare the performance of their Geographical Knowledge
Representation System with image retrieval by human subjects. Gabor filters
are used to extract low level features from 1282 pixel tiles cut from
aerial photograph images. A 60 feature vector describes each tile and a
Euclidean distance similarity measure is used to sort the tile images by
least distance. Adjacent similar tiles are grouped to create regions which
in turn are represented with derived vectors. Kohonen's Self Organizing Map
(SOM) is created showing tiles representing the textures to be found in the
data. Clicking on these displays the tiles in the same category. 
Thirty human subjects were assigned an image and six randomly selected
reference tiles to score for similarity to each of the 192 tiles in the
image. A second group of ten subjects were asked to draw lines around areas
they found similar to the reference tiles. A third group of ten subjects
were given the SOM selected reference tiles and asked to categorize each
tile in the whole image into categories represented by these reference
tiles. The system exhibited no significant difference in precision from the
human subjects but preformed less well on recall. Humans selected more
tiles viewed as similar and the top 5 system and subject tiles were
consistently different. Both had difficulty with tiles where texture alone
did not distinguish one from another. In tile groupings into regions,
humans out preformed the system on both measures but in image
categorization no significant difference existed. Adding features other
than texture may help performance which is close to inexpert human

How Can We Investigate Citation Behavior? A Study of Reasons for Citing
Literature in Communication 
Donald O. Case and Georgeann M. Higgins
Case and Higgins review the previous studies providing lists of reasons
for author's citing behavior, and studies using these categories where
investigators classify citation behavior on the basis of content analysis.
They also reexamine the smaller set of studies involving surveys of authors
as to the reasons for their behavior. Choosing the two most highly cited
authors appearing in both of two recent studies of the Communication
literature all citations to their work in the years 1995 and 1996 were
collected. 133 unique citers were identified and sent 32 item
questionnaires with the questions from a recent study in the Psychology
literature. Returns from 56 were received, 31 for author A and 25 for
author B, and responses for the two authors were not significantly
different. No new reasons for citation were identified. The top reasons
were a review of past work, acting as a representative of a genre of
studies, and as a source of a method. Negative citation is quite rare.
Twenty five not redundant items with some indication of importance were
subjected to a factor analysis. Seven factors explain 69% of the variance;
classic citation, social reasons, negative citation, creative citation,
contrasting citation, similarity citation, and cite of a review. Factors
predicting citation are; perception of novelty and representation of a
genre, perception that citation will promote cognitive authority of the
citing work, and perception that the cited item deserves criticism. 

Children's Use of the Yahooligans! Web Search Engine: I. Cognitive,
Physical, and Affective Behaviors on Fact-Based Search Tasks 
Dania Bilal
In the Bilal study twenty two middle school students were assigned a
question to search in Yahooligans! as part of their Science class. The
teacher provided ratings of the children's topic knowledge, general science
knowledge, and reading ability. A quiz administered to the students
indicated knowledge of the Internet and of Yahooligans! in particular.
Lotus ScreenCam was used to record 18 of the student system interactions.
Student's transcribed moves were classified and counted with a score of one
(relevant) for selection of a link that appears appropriate and leads to
the desired information; .05 for the selection of a link that appear
appropriate but is not successful, and 0 to the selection of links that
give no indication of information leading to success. Weighted
effectiveness and efficiency scores are then computed. 
Thirty six percent initially browsed subject categories while the rest
entered single or multi-word concepts. Key words and in some cases natural
language were used in subsequent moves despite the fact that Yahooligans!
does not support natural language search. Subsequent activity mixed
browsing with term search. Looping and backtracking were very common but
the go button using the search history links was unused. Most children
scrolled but not often the complete page. Half were successful but all were

Ethnomethodologically Informed Ethnography and Information System Design 
Andy Crabtree, David M. Nichols, Jon O'Brien, Mark Rouncefield, and Michael
B. Twidale 
Crabtree et al. object to traditional ethnographic analysis as applied to
information problems on the basis that the application of pre-defined rules
and procedures yields an organization of the activity observed from the
point of view of the analyst rather than that of the participants. Such a
``constructive analysis'' approach does not describe the actual activities,
but in the name of objectivity imposes a structure which obscures the real
world practices through which subjects make sense of their surroundings,
and produce information. 
Ethnomethodology emphasizes rigorous thick description of local practices
by assembling concrete cases of preformed activity as the direct units of
analysis. EM analysis attempts to generate a description in great detail of
how the described activity could be reproduced in and through the same
practices. Such description provides a sense of the real world aspects of a
socially organized setting to systems designers and thus provides the
exceptions, contradictions, and contingencies of the activities that
otherwise might not be evident. Practitioners of ethnography and computer
system design have quite different cultures but communication can lead to
far better design practices. 


Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, Vol. 33, 1998, by
Martha E. Williams Birger Hjorland

IT Investment in Developing Countries: An Assessment and Practical
Guideline, by Sam Lubbe Queen Esther Booker

Information Brokering, by Florence M. Mason and Chris Dobson James J.

Information Management for the Intellegent Organization: The Art of
Scanning the Environment, by Chun Wei Choo Donald R. Smith

The ASIS home page <>
contains the Table of Contents and brief abstracts as above from January
1993 (Volume 44) to date.

The John Wiley Interscience site <>
includes issues from 1986 (Volume 37) to date. Guests have access only to
tables of contents and abstracts. Registered users of the interscience
site and ASIS members who have selected electronic access have access to
the full text of these issues and to preprints.


volume 51, no 8

Date: Fri, 14 Apr 2000 11:27:19 -0400
From: Richard Hill <>
To:, nancy@CNI.ORG,,,,,,
Subject: ASIS-L: JASIS TOC: Volume 51, Number 8

Journal of the American Society for Information Science

[Note: At the bottom are URLs for viewing contents of JASIS from past
issues. Below the contents of Bert Boyce's "In This Issue" has been cut
into the Table of Contents.]

In This Issue
Bert R. Boyce


An Evaluation of Retrieval Effectiveness Using Spelling-Correction and
String-Similarity Matching Methods on Malay Texts
Zainab Abu Bakar, Tengku Mohd T. Sembok, and Mohammed Yusoff
We begin this issue with Bakar et alia's evaluation of string matching
methods on Malay texts. Much of current post 1960 Malay text is in the Rumi
alphabet, a romanised system based on English phonemes. English conflation
algorithms can be used effectively. Because of prefixes and infixes
stemming alone is not effective, and the addition of n-gram matching is
required. Using a data set with 5085 unique Malay words and 84 query words,
eight phonetic code lists were created using four coding methods from
stemmed and not stemmed dictionaries. One hundred words surrounding a
matched key are chosen, equally above and below unless too close to the top
or bottom of the list. Stemming proves to be very helpful, as does phonetic
coding. It seems that smaller key sizes perform better. Diagram, an
existing string matching algorithm, gave the best relevant and retrieved

Managing Heterogeneuous Information Systems through Discovery and Retrieval
of Generic Concepts
Uma Srinivasan, Anne H.H. Ngu, and Tom Gedeon
Within application domains users with common objectives create
heterogeneous databases to store and manage similar data types. Usage
patterns indicate the knowledge of the users. The notion, for Srinivsan et
alia, is to create a ``middle layer'' of concepts extracted from similar
patterns in existing systems and from the use of these systems, which can
wrap the existing databases and provide a common access mechanism. Entities
defined in existing systems as sets of variables, are extracted and classed
using similarity measures based on commonality in structure and use
patterns. Those classed together represent a common application specific
generic concept. 
For each class user group pair a ``group data object'' is created. A
tree of ``group data objects'' that represents user types at different
levels of specificity is generated from user supplied terms and query
extracted terms from each user type. A user is mapped into a user type and
then the appropriate group data objects are generated and their labels
displayed to the user for selection. Selection generates the extractors
from each database for that user type in that group data object. Three
medical databases clustered yielded eight concept classes and multiple user
objects were created. Tests showed varied query production in the same
concept classes for the various groups. 

Raising Reliability of Web Search Tool Research through Replication and
Chaos Theory 
Scott Nicholson
After reviewing the literature of evaluative web search tool research,
Nicholson replicates the 1996 Ding and Marchionini search service study ten
times during the Summer of 1998. Previous work finds replication yields
significantly different results over time. The first twenty pages returned
by Infoseek, Lycos, Alta Vista and Excite for the five queries were
examined and ranked between 0 and 5 for relevance. Differing engine
rankings for each replication are the rule. Using two queries, one designed
to have a stable answer and another a dynamic answer over time, the four
systems were tried again on five successive weeks. New pages appearing in
the first 20 pages in each successive week were counted, as were pages that
changed ranked position. Both queries showed considerable change week to
week. The results were aggregated and the frequency of the engine with the
highest number of relevant documents found to show a replicable pattern
over all weeks, the odd weeks, and the even weeks. This pattern provides a
clear ranking of the five engines, which was not determinable from the
individual replications. 

The Personal Construction of Information Space 
Cliff McKnight
An information space, according to McKnight, is just the objects, real
or virtual, an individual uses to acquire information. A repertory grid is
a means of externalizing a person's view of the world where a triad of
elements is presented and the subject asked to find how two are the same
and the third different. The focus that makes this possible is given a
rating scale with extremes for both poles, and called a construct. Multiple
constructs with element ratings provide an individuals view of a domain.
Eleven information sources were elicited from a University lecturer and
presented as triads. Ten constructs were elicited and the elements rated on
the constructs. A cluster analysis reorders the grid so similarly rated
elements and similarly used constructs are adjacent. Both construct and
element clusters seem to make sense and likely reflect the subject's views
of his information space. It remains to be seen if parts can be shared with
other subjects. 

Time-Line Interviews and Inductive Content Analysis: Their Effectiveness
for Exploring Cognitive Behaviors
Linda Schamber
Schamber uses her weather information data collected by time-line
interview techniques and content analysis to address the effectiveness of
these techniques. By soliciting a sequence of events where weather
information was needed and sought, and soliciting the one event in the
sequence where information was most actively sought, the key event, and
those before and after it could be studied in some detail. The time-line
technique provides an unobtrusive means of collecting data on perceptions
and yields rich data. It is, however, a labor intensive method. The content
analysis was also unobtrusive and effective, but also very labor intensive.
In this framework criteria are best defined from user's perceptions, which
are indicated with validity from self reports. 

Abstracts Produced Using Computer Assistance 
Timothy C. Craven
Craven evaluates abstracts produced with the assistance of TEXNET, an
experimental system which provides the abstractor with text words and
phrases extracted by frequency after a stop-list pass. Three texts of
approximately 2000 words each were chosen and for each text a set of 20
different subjects drawn by advertisement within a University community
created abstracts using TEXNET. Half got a display of keywords occurring
eight or more times, and half got a display of phrases of the same
occurrence. All subjects were surveyed as to background and reaction to the
software, provided with a demonstration of the software, and told their
abstract should not exceed 250 words. Nine of these, including the author
abstract, were read by three raters again recruited by advertisement.
Analysis shows no correlation between keywords or phrases and quality
ratings or usefulness judgements by subjects. Experience did not lead to
conciseness, originality or approximation of the author abstract. Female
gender correlated positively with length and use of words from the text.
Subjects wanted to view text and emerging abstract simultaneously, easy
scrolling, standard black on white screens, a dynamic word count and spell

Encounters with the OPAC: On-Line Searching in Public Libraries
Deborah J. Slone
Slone looks at the behavior of OPAC users conducting known item, area
(broad search with most refinement off line), and unknown item searches in
a public library. Thirty six participants, who approached the terminals and
agreed, answered a pre-search questionnaire on OPAC experience, reason for
coming, and length of time spent planning their search. They were then
observed, and their searching terms, comments, reactions, age, gender, time
on line, and outcome logged. Feelings were inferred from observation and
noted except that confidence level was solicited in the questionnaire.
Twenty eight began confident, but only 14 displayed confidence during their
search. Successful unknown item searchers began broadly, and focused with
terms selected form initial results. Area searchers searched broadly for a
general area and focused at the shelves using minimal computer resources.
Known item searches were quickly effective at the terminal. Frustration,
anxiety and disappointment abounded during unknown item searches. 

Using Clustering Strategies for Creating Authority Files
James C. French, Allison L. Powell, and Eric Schulman
When disparate bibliographic databases are integrated different
authority conventions prevent physical combination and require a mapping
that hides the heterogeneity from users. French, Powell, and Schulman
advance automated techniques for the assistance of those maintaining
authority for author affiliations in the Astrophysics Data System. Strings
were extracted, clustered, reviewed by a domain expert and iterated to a
final form. Concentration was on an ideal set of 38 institutions
represented by 1,745 variant strings, with a goal of properly clustering
these while excluding instances of the other 12,139 identified strings in
the ideal clusters. First a lexical cleanup was run removing uppercase,
country designations at the end of a string, as well as ZIP codes, and
state abbreviations, and expanding a list of abbreviations. Then string and
frequency of occurrence pairs are sorted and beginning with the most common
string its distance to all other strings is computed and those exceeding a
threshold are clustered with the most common item and removed from
consideration. The process is iterated until the file is exhausted. Tested
distance measures are: edit distance i.e. the number of four simple
operations required for transforming one string to another, edit distance
with words rather than characters, and the Jaccard coefficient. Allowing
the threshold to be some fraction of the length of the shorter string
improves results over a fixed threshold but higher thresholds required to
cluster all variants still result in significant errors. Required human
effort rises with the number of misplaced strings but such effort is
reduced roughly in half by the clustering procedure. 

Inventing the Internet, by Jane Abbate
Cheryl Knott Malone

Internet Policy Handbook for Libraries, by Mark Smith
Janie L. Hassard Wilkins


volume 51, no 9

Date: Thu, 1 Jun 2000 11:52:06 -0400
Sender: Open Lib/Info Sci Education Forum <>
From: Richard Hill <rhill@ASIS.ORG>
Subject: JASIS Vol 51, # 9 July 2000


Journal of the American Society for Information Science
Volume 51, Number 9

[Note: At the bottom are URLs for viewing contents of JASIS from past
issues. The contents of Bert Boyce's "In This Issue" has been cut into the
Table of Contents below.]


In This Issue
Bert R. Boyce


Rating News Documents for Similarity
Carolyn Watters and Hong Wang
We begin with a look at automatic ordering of news stories for users.
The news presentation problem is seen by Watters and Wang as identifying a
small number of items of interest that are similar to that item whose
current viewing results in a positive reaction from the viewer. News items
are represented by a class of news objects consisting of a header with
author, publisher, title, and date; a content section including location,
date, name and organization; and a behavior section including input, output
update or match. Text in an XML like markup language is processed against a
stop list, and using capitalization and punctuation, proper names are
extracted and categorized into location, date, person, and organization
(all by dictionary lookup). Using the sum over the 4 categories of the
similarities, computed as the sum of the common terms in the phrase sets,
for locations, persons, dates and organizations, divided by the sum of the
number of phrases in the smaller of the phrase sets for each category, a
similarity value for two news objects is calculated. Users may select the
phrases from an existing paper, or allow the system to use all available.
Algorithmic selection of dates and locations in a test file was nearly
100%, full name extraction at 93%, and terms compared to a human sample at
90%. Most errors were due to incorrect punctuation and imbedded capitals.
Six users kept precision between 93% and 100%, while recall varied between
45% and 100%.

The ``Conduit Metaphor'' and The Nature and Politics of Information
Ronald E. Day
By ``conduit metaphor'' Day means the classic Shannon and Weaver model
of an information system which he finds to be central in both Weaver's and
Wiener's formulations of information theory. The implication is that
information is measurable, and that informational language will preform
intentional and communicative functions. Day sees this as a totalitarian
control over meaning and expression which is based upon the rhetorical
device of the ``conduit metaphor,'' and thus is more literary and
humanistic than scientific. He believes a more broad paradigm of
information science could move the discipline beyond its current boundaries
and into a more critical stance toward dominant political and social

What Is Wrong with Obsolescence?
Pedro Alvarez, Isabel Escalona, and Antonio Pulgarin
Alvarez and his associates extract the citations for the years 1985 to
1994 to papers in 45 physics journals published in 1985. Since the
declining distributions are not exponential there is no time independent
aging factor. A selection of journals by smaller aging factor will not
insure that the greater coverage journals are selected. Use of
probabilities of citation in the Rasch model for each year, gives a ranking
that provides elements of both aging and total contribution and is quite
different than an aging factor ranking.

Probability Distributions in Library and Information Science: A
Historical and Practitioner Viewpoint
Stephen J. Bensman
Bensman gives us a historical look at the development of statistical
methods of prime use in library and in information science research
emphasizing that the skewed distributions found here are common in other
areas, and have been studied particularly by British statisticians.
Specifically the normal distribution is not a common phenomena in social or
biological areas. Practically one can generally assume that the negative
binomial fits LIS data unless the mean's closeness to the variance
indicates Poisson. Transformation to log normal form will allow statistical

When Information Retrieval Measures Agree About the Relative Quality of
Document Ratings
Robert M. Losee
Equivalent measures, for Losee, means two different measures are equal
for all instances of ordering of one set. Equivalent ordering means the
order relation for the two measures holds in all different orderings of two
document sets. Since Dice and Jacquard are monotonic they are order
equivalent though not equivalent. Precision measures at two levels of
recall are not order equivalent for all orderings, although they will be
for some orderings. Simple match and Jacquard are neither equivalent or
order equivalent. If it is true that the difference between a measure on
one ordering and another is other than negative and the difference between
a second measure on the same two orderings is other than negative, the
measures are order equivalent. Where this equivalent measure function is
false the region of difference may be determined, permitting the study of
conditions where changes in different measures' values will correspond.

Shifts of Interactive Intentions and Information-Seeking Strategies in
Interactive Information Retrieval
Hong (Iris) Xie
Xie uses 40 cases randomly selected from a four class stratification of
the 150 library uses available in the 1990 Belkin, Saracevic study. Using
the collected open ended interviews, unobtrusive observation logs, and
transaction logs, Xie identifies information seeking strategies,
interactive intentions (changing sub-goals in a search process), and shifts
in these during the search process. Long term goals do not normally change
during the search process. Interactive intentions do shift. Planned shifts
occur when the previous intention was met without problem and the next
planned intention comes into play. They occurred most frequently.
Opportunistic shifts occur when serendipity tempts the user to follow a
different path usually returning to the original way at a later time.
Assisted shifts normally occur when the user needs to learn how to better
use the systems and so shifts from, perhaps, searching to learning.
Alternative shifts occur when previous attempts fail. Information seeking
strategies are modified only if shifts of interactive intentions fail.

The Knowledge-Behavior Gap in Use of Health Information
F.X. Sligo and Anna M. Jameson
Silgo and Jameson study the preferences of Pacific Island immigrants to
New Zealand for sources of information on cervical cancer screening in a
community of 70,000 people in order to determine how the Pacific women's
communication network operates in dealing with sensitive health
information. One on one semi-structured interviews were recorded to gather
information beginning with participants known to the observer, and moving
on to those the initial participants suggested until a sample of 20 was
completed. Respondents knew it was desirable to have a smear test but were
culturally unable to freely act upon or discuss the matter. Education level
did not effect responses. Participants felt information directly from their
peers was most effective but would not want someone in the peer group to
administer the test. The group had a high degree of community connectedness.

Discovering Knowledge from Noisy Databases Using Genetic Programming
Man Leung Wong, Kwong Sak Leung, and Jack C.Y. Cheng
LOGENPRO, a grammar driven data mining program combining an inductive
logic approach with genetic programming outperforms other inductive logic
programming systems when tested against the chess end game problem, despite
the fact that it uses the same noise handling mechanisms to overcome
imperfect training sets. This suggests to Wong et alia, that the Darwinian
principle is a plausible noise handling mechanism. When used with a
database of limb fractures containing age, sex, admission date, length of
stay, diagnosis, operation, and surgeon, it is found that between ages 2
and 5 the break is likely to be in the humerus, but in boys between 11 and
13 the radius break is most common. Rules concerning length of stay and
type of operation are also discovered.


Proper Citations
Marcia J. Bates

Authors of Information Science
J. Periam Danton

Rejoinder: Authors of Information Science
Howard D. White and Katherine W. McCain


volume 51 no 10

Date: Fri, 16 Jun 2000 16:40:01 -0400
Sender: Open Lib/Info Sci Education Forum <>
From: Richard Hill <rhill@ASIS.ORG>
Subject: JASIS 51/10 Table of Contents


Journal of the American Society for Information Science
Volume 51, Number 10

[Note: At the bottom are URLs for viewing contents of JASIS from past
issues. The contents of Bert Boyce's "In This Issue" has been cut into the
Table of Contents below. ASIS members who wish electronic access but
didn't so electe can contact]


In This Issue
Bert R. Boyce


Motivations for Hyperlinking in Scholarly Electronic Articles: A
Qualitative Study
Hak Joon Kim
It is easy to assume that hyperlinks in electronic journals are the
equivalent of citations and may be so treated in literature analysis. Kim
investigates the motivations of scholarly hyperlinking in electronic
publications in order to examine this assumption. Using faculty and
graduate students at Indiana University who had published at least one peer
reviewed article with at least one hyperlink in it in an electronic only
publication after 1995, in depth open ended semi-structured interviews were
conducted. The interviewer brought a hard copy of the articles and first
pages of linked articles as a basis for discussion, solicited the
motivation for each link and transcribed the audiotape of the discussion.
Nineteen categories of reasons were identified, and three coders achieved
an agreement coefficient of 83.6%. These were grouped into scholarly,
social, and technological reasons.
The provision of additional or background information was the most
common purpose, and the provision of an example or illustration the second
of twelve scholarly motivations. Of five social motivations, publicity for
an information source, and credit to an author or institution were the most
common. In the technological category, provision of an easy access
mechanism was most common but a second motivation was simply the
possibility of providing such a link. On the average each link has over two
motivations. The social and scholarly motives are common with those for
citation but more than one-third of the links were motivated at least
partially by technological reasons where there is no commonality. Hyperlink
counts as a measure of quality are suspect due to the complex nature of
motivations for their use, however, most practices are grounded in
conventional citation practices.

Narratives of New Media in Scottish Households: The Evolution of a
Framework of Inquiry
Elisabeth Davenport, Martin Higgins, and Ian Somerville
Davenport, Higgins, and Somerville attempt to investigate the way
information systems (PCs and cable TV) intervene in the social group of the
household in order to characterize the managing, spending, consuming and
sharing of resources therein. Using questions on activities, understanding
of technology, manipulation, and meaningfulness, pilot households were
interviewed and narratives were stimulated that provided information that
adults focused on job oriented technology and children view the devices
primarily for entertainment. In phase 2, 26 households were interviewed,
invited to tell stories and anecdotes as well as provide directed opinions
and responses. Equipment acquisitions were joint household decisions and
tended to be opportunistic rather than carefully researched. Computers
tended to be purchased with some long term goal in mind while TVs were more
often an instant gratification purchase. Cable subscription was a household
decision but use is male and sports dominated. TVs were in front rooms and
bedrooms, computers were more likely to have their own space and often
hidden from general view. TV via teletext was used to track shares and
purchase holidays but not to shop. VCRs had time shifting and local
scheduling advantages. Equipment users used the library and read
newspapers. Interest in information was not shifting from one medium to
another but expanding to find time for more. Identified narratives
included: Men control viewing, children are better at new technology, men
watch sports, women soaps, TV is anti-social and trivial, computers are
serious. However, children view TV as a social currency and computers as
entertainment machines.

Shifts of Focus on Various Aspects of User Information Problems During
Interactive Information Retrieval
David Robins
Robins reviews current models of the interactive retrieval process as a
prelude to examining focus shifts as they occur in mediated retrieval.
Using the transcribed discourse between 20 users and their intermediaries,
collected earlier by Saracevic and Su, he identifies shifts (changes in
conversational focus), classifies them by type and function and counts both
the shifts and the utterances in each shift. In the 20 interactions 1439
shifts occurred, 1084 during the online portion of the search. Considerably
more time was spent in interaction with the system than with pre-search
modeling. Topic and user focus constituted only 15% of all foci indicating
low attention to user problem modeling, at least as determined by discourse
analysis. Search intermediaries initiated two thirds of all shifts. Shifts
occur rapidly and even chaotically. The concentration is on strategy and
evaluation with only moderate evidence of changing problem conception.

Users' Perception of Relevance of Spoken Documents
Tassos Tombros and Fabio Crestani
Telephone access to retrieval systems involves voice recognition as
well as efficient database searching in a noisy interactive environment.
Tombros and Crestani look at user perception of the relevance of document
summaries presented vocally in the context of the Sonification of an
Information Retrieval Environment, or SIRE project at the University of
Glasgow. SIRE interactively converts telephone speech to query text for a
probabilistic retrieval system, that then converts high ranked results to
vocalized summaries for relevance judgment by the user. Summarizations
ranked sentences by position, field, and high score based on the number of
high document frequency words present, and a length normalized query score
based on query terms present. The smaller of 15% or the five top sentences
in original order were then presented.
Ten subjects judged relevance from direct human read descriptions,
descriptions read by a human over a telephone, and descriptions read by a
speech application while situational variables are controlled. Answer
sheets as to relevance of the top 50 documents, evaluated in a five-minute
period for each query, and a questionnaire on utility and clarity of the
treatment were utilized. Elapsed time, precision (relevant & identified /
total indicated as relevant), and recall (relevant & identified / number
examined & relevant) are used as measures. Time increases, and recall
decreases as one moves down the continuum from screen views to artificial
voice. Natural voice on the telephone brings higher precision than direct
voice or synthesized voice on the telephone. The difference between times
for the various treatments is statistically significant, and time spent on
judgment declines with the later queries.

Impact of Prior Electronic Publication on Manuscript Consideration
Policies of Scholarly Journals
Stephen P. Harter and Taemin Kim Park
Using the source journals of the Institute for Scientific Information,
Harter and Park selected four sub-populations, mathematics, physics,
psychology, and education, based on their early activity in web publishing.
The journals were sorted by an impact factor limited to the number of
citations received in a year to papers published in the previous two years.
The top and bottom 20 journals in each field were selected plus 42 random
journals from Arts and Humanities Citation Index. The editors of these 202
journals were identified and surveyed as to policies on acceptance of items
existing on the Internet and on factors that would influence a decision in
this area achieving a response rate of 57%. Most editors had no formal
policy. Most would consider papers already electronically available in
something like preprint form, but only one-fourth would consider a paper
previously published in an electronic journal. Fewer than half would
consider a paper previously published in print. Impact factor and location
have little effect on these decisions. Editors and fields of study disagree
on the factors that control such decisions. Arts and humanities editors are
less likely to consider publication of material previously available in
electronic form.

End User Searching on the Internet: An Analysis of Term Pair Topics
Submitted to the Excite Search Engine
Nancy C. M. Ross and Dietmar Wolfram
Ross and Wolfram study a database containing 1,025,910 Excite queries
from a single day each containing a searcher identifier, times, and the
full query statement. Identical queries from the same machine in succession
were included only once resulting in 363,282 unique queries. Terms per
query, term frequency distribution, co-occurrence frequencies, queries per
identifier, and pages visited per query were computed. The 1,054 most
frequently occurring term pairs (from 6,116 to 45) were analyzed using
NUD-IST software for indexing and grouping, resulting in categories to
apply to the term pairs. Using the number of queries in which pairs
occurred to apply weights to category overlaps, a matrix was created for
cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. Thirty categories were
produced with 85 pairs unclassified. Using Ward's amalgamation rule with
either Pearson's r or the City block method produced clear and meaningful
clusters. The largest cluster (about 26%) concerns adult topics, the
second, computer oriented pursuits, while the others breaking out at a
lower linkage distance represent education, products and services, formal
reference, and popular culture. For MDS Pearson's coefficients were
calculated for each category pair, and a three-dimensional solution adopted
for queries from personal to institutional, general to specific, and
leisure to formal.

In Memory of Belver C. Griffith
Howard D. White and Katherine W. McCain

U.S. Government on the Web: Getting the Information You Need, by Peter
Hernon, John A. Shuler, and Robert E. Dugan
Mike Steckel

Information Seeking in the Online Age: Principles and Practice, by
Andrew Large, Lucy A. Tedd, and R.J. Hartley
Ethelene Whitmire

Web Style Guide: Basic Design Principles for Creating Web Sites, by
Patrick J. Lynch and Sarah Horton
Terrence A. Brooks

Developer's Guide to the Java Web Server: Building Effective and
Scalable Server-Side Applications, by Dan Woods, Larne Pekowsky, and Tom Snee
Pascal V. Calarco

The Clock of the Long Now: Time and Responsibility, by Stewart Brand
Jo Ann Oravec

Incremental Benefit of Human Indexing
Jian Qin

The ASIS home page <>
contains the Table of Contents and brief abstracts as above from January
1993 (Volume 44) to date.

The John Wiley Interscience site <>
includes issues from 1986 (Volume 37) to date.

Journal of Intelligent Information Systems

Call for papers

Date: Wed, 26 Jul 2000 16:43:19 -0400
From: "John C. Cherniavsky" <jchernia@NSF.GOV>
Subject: ASIS-L: Call for Papers Special Issue JIIS - Education Applications

Call for Papers

Journal of Intelligent Information Systems

Special Issue on


John C. Cherniavsky, National Science Foundation
Guest Editor


The process of human learning is one of intelligently managing and
synthesizing large amounts of data, information, and knowledge to create new
knowledge for more effectively operating in the real and virtual
environments of human existence. Automated support for this process of human
learning resides primarily in carefully constructed tutors that do detailed
cognitive task analysis, search tools of various levels of sophistication
for searching and synthesizing materials on the web, and tools for digital
libraries that attempt to classify and analyze text and multimedia to make
these rich libraries useful for human learning.

Recent advances in information systems show great promise of applicability
to human learning. Examples of these advances include:

o The development of Latent Semantic Analysis as a powerful summarization
and indexing tool for text documents
o The development of business oriented Process and Knowledge Management
systems that show promise of applicability to human learning
o The development of multimedia tools for video and voice in digital
libraries that promise applications for analysis of human interactions in
learning environments
o The development of visualization technologies that allow new modes of
understanding for large amounts of information and promise more effective
learning modalities

These advances need to be integrated into learning environments taking into
account the characteristics of human learners in environments that range
from individuals learning, to group or collaborative learning, to learning
in social environments such as schooling in elementary, secondary, and
university settings or training in the workplace.

The goal of this special issue is to give accounts of these new affordances
in a diverse set of learning environments with the hope that these accounts
will spur further research and development in bringing modern information
technology to education.

Topics of Interest

This special issue focuses on "Intelligent Information Systems and
Education". Specific topics include, but are not limited to:

o Latent Semantic Analysis and its applications to education
o The innovative use of Knowledge and Process management tools in education
o Automated tutoring and training systems that make use of intelligent
information systems
o The innovative use of information and data visualizations in learning
o The use of intelligent information systems in learning on the web
o The support of lifelong learning through the innovative use of intelligent
information systems

Submission of Manuscripts

Interested potential contributors are invited to submit four copies of the
manuscript by November 1, 2000 to the editor. Manuscripts should be 25 pages
in length, when formatted according to the JIIS LaTex macros which may be
obtained from the JIIS Site at Kluwer, (
Prospective authors are encouraged to see the Instructions for Authors of
Special Issues. Manuscripts in other than Kluwer format should be no more
than 30 typewritten pages, 12 type font and 18 point spacing.

Submissions should include a title page including the corresponding author's
complete mail address, phone, fax, and email address of all authors; the
paper, including an abstract (100 to 250 words) and 3 to 5 key words (all
figures and tables should be embedded in their proper place in text); and a
complete alphabetically-ordered list of all references cited in the paper,
using the (author, date) citation style in the paper.

All manuscripts will be peer reviewed.

Timeline for the Special Issue

o Submit four hard copies of the manuscript to the editors by November 1,
o Authors will be notified of acceptance or necessary revision by January
16, 2001
o Revised papers will due by February 15, 2001
o Expected publication date is Summer 2001

Guest Editor's address:

John C. Cherniavsky
National Science Foundation
4201 Wilson Boulevard, Room 855
Arlington, VA 22230

John C. Cherniavsky, Ph.D.
Senior Advisor for Research, EHR
National Science Foundation, Room 855
4201 Wilson Blvd
Arlington, VA 22230
PH 703-306-1650, FAX 703-306-0434
After 7/31/00
PH 703-292-5136, FAX 703-292-9046



Call for papers

Date: Wed, 09 Aug 2000 11:27:07 -0600
From: Knowledge Organization <>
Subject: ASIS-L: Call for papers: Knowledge Organization (KO)


Knowledge Organization (KO)

Official Quarterly Journal of the
International Society of Knowledge Organization (ISKO)

Devoted to Concept Theory, Classification, Indexing and Knowledge

Published by ERGON-Verlag, Würzburg, Germany

Knowledge Organization is an international refereed quarterly journal that
publishes scholarly papers and reports related to all aspects of knowledge
organization. The scope of Knowledge Organization is both broad and deep.
It encompasses the theory, practice, history, and education of knowledge
organization and of its various subfields, including terminology. For
further information, please refer to the Scope and Aims of Knowledge
Organization summarized below.

Knowledge Organization is currently evaluating papers for publication.

Specific instructions for authors appear in each issue of the journal. To
submit a manuscript, please email manuscripts (in Word, Wordperfect, or RTF
format) with an indicative abstract to:

Prof. Hope A. Olson, Editor-in-Chief
Angela Kublik, Editorial Assistant
Knowledge Organization
School of Library and Information Studies
3-20 Rutherford South
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J4

Electronic submissions are preferred; submissions will also be accepted via
airmail provided that four copies are submitted or that submissions are
accompanied by a 3.5" diskette encoded in Word, Wordperfect, or RTF format.

Scope of KO:

In each issue experts from many countries comment on questions of an
adequate structuring and construction of ordering systems and on the
problems of their use in opening the information contents of new
literature, of data collections and survey, of tabular works and of other
objects of scientific interest. Their contributions have been concerned
with: (1) clarifying the theoretical foundations (general ordering
theory/science, theoretical bases of classification, data analysis and
reduction); (2) describing practical operations connected with
indexing/classification as well as applications of classification systems
and thesauri, manual and machine indexing; (3) tracing the history of
classification knowledge and methodology; (4) discussing questions of
education and training in classification; and (5) concerning themselves
with the problems of terminology in general and with respect to special

Aims of KO:

Knowledge Organization is a forum for discussion for all those interested
in the organization of knowledge on a universal or a subject-field scale,
using concept-analytical and/or concept-synthetical approaches as well as
numerical procedures and comprising also the intellectual and automatic
compilation and use of classification systems and thesauri in all fields of
knowledge, with special attention being given to the problems of terminology.

Knowledge Organization publishes original articles, reports on conferences
and similar communications, the news of the International Society for
Knowledge Organization (ISKO News) and the Committee on Classification
Research of the International Federation of Documentation (FID/CR News), as
well as book reviews, letters to the editor, and an extensive annotated
bibliography of recent classification and indexing literature.


Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography

Version 31

Date: Fri, 16 Jun 2000 10:11:41 -0500
From: "Charles W. Bailey, Jr." <cbailey@UH.EDU>
Subject: ASIS-L: Version 31, Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography

Version 31 of the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography
is now available. This selective bibliography presents over
1,160 articles, books, electronic documents, and other sources
that are useful in understanding scholarly electronic publishing
efforts on the Internet and other networks.

Acrobat: <URL:>
Word 97: <URL:>

The HTML document is designed for interactive use. Each
major section is a separate file. There are live links to
sources available on the Internet. It can be can be searched using
Boolean operators.

The HTML document also includes Scholarly Electronic Publishing
Resources, a collection of links to related Web sites:


The Acrobat and Word files are designed for printing. The Acrobat
file is over 200 KB and the Word file is over 370 KB.

(Revised sections in this version are marked with an asterisk.)

Table of Contents

1 Economic Issues*
2 Electronic Books and Texts
2.1 Case Studies and History*
2.2 General Works*
2.3 Library Issues*
3 Electronic Serials
3.1 Case Studies and History*
3.2 Critiques*
3.3 Electronic Distribution of Printed Journals*
3.4 General Works*
3.5 Library Issues*
3.6 Research
4 General Works
5 Legal Issues
5.1 Intellectual Property Rights*
5.2 License Agreements*
5.3 Other Legal Issues*
6 Library Issues
6.1 Cataloging, Classification, and Metadata*
6.2 Digital Libraries*
6.3 General Works*
6.4 Information Conversion, Integrity, and Preservation*
7 New Publishing Models*
8 Publisher Issues*
8.1 Electronic Commerce/Copyright Systems*
Appendix A. Related Bibliographies by the Same Author
Appendix B. About the Author

Best Regards,

Charles W. Bailey, Jr., Assistant Dean for Systems,
University Libraries, University of Houston, Houston, TX
77204-2091. E-mail: Voice: (713) 743-9804.
Fax: (713) 743-9811.


Version 32

Date: Tue, 1 Aug 2000 14:01:11 -0500
Sender: Open Lib/Info Sci Education Forum <>
From: "Charles W. Bailey, Jr." <cbailey@UH.EDU>
Subject: Version 32, Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography


Version 32 of the Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography
is now available. This selective bibliography presents over
1,190 articles, books, electronic documents, and other sources
that are useful in understanding scholarly electronic publishing
efforts on the Internet and other networks.

Acrobat: <URL:>
Word 97: <URL:>

The HTML document is designed for interactive use. Each
major section is a separate file. There are live links to
sources available on the Internet. It can be can be searched using
Boolean operators.

The HTML document also includes Scholarly Electronic Publishing
Resources, a collection of links to related Web sites:


The Acrobat and Word files are designed for printing. The Acrobat
file is over 300 KB and the Word file is over 360 KB.

(Revised sections in this version are marked with an asterisk.)

Table of Contents

1 Economic Issues*
2 Electronic Books and Texts
2.1 Case Studies and History*
2.2 General Works*
2.3 Library Issues
3 Electronic Serials
3.1 Case Studies and History*
3.2 Critiques
3.3 Electronic Distribution of Printed Journals*
3.4 General Works
3.5 Library Issues*
3.6 Research*
4 General Works*
5 Legal Issues
5.1 Intellectual Property Rights*
5.2 License Agreements*
5.3 Other Legal Issues
6 Library Issues
6.1 Cataloging, Identifiers, and Metadata*
6.2 Digital Libraries*
6.3 General Works*
6.4 Information Conversion, Integrity, and Preservation*
7 New Publishing Models*
8 Publisher Issues*
8.1 Electronic Commerce/Copyright Systems
Appendix A. Related Bibliographies by the Same Author
Appendix B. About the Author

Best Regards,

Charles W. Bailey, Jr., Assistant Dean for Systems,
University Libraries, University of Houston, Houston, TX
77204-2091. E-mail: Voice: (713) 743-9804.
Fax: (713) 743-9811.





Date: Wed, 5 Apr 2000 10:13:26 -0400
Sender: Open Lib/Info Sci Education Forum <>
From: "Mark Dibble (REF)" <mdibble@DUDLEY.LIB.USF.EDU>
Subject: Call for Papers


Announcing a new peer-reviewed online journal, Transforming Traditional

The traditional organization and method of delivering library services has
changed greatly in recent years because of the development of new
technologies and the changing needs of library users. This transformation
has had a profound effect not only on the nature of libraries, but on the
types of services they offer and on the way they provide those services.
It has also forced librarians to reexamine and redefine their roles as
they explore possibilities for meeting the information needs of their
users. TRANSFORMING TRADITIONAL LIBRARIES is a peer-reviewed e-journal
designed to explore the ongoing evolution of librarianship. Coverage will
include resources such as digital collections, electronic indices, OPACs,
Internet research, bibliographic instruction, as well as skill such as
information literacy. The journal will focus on exploring how libraries
and librarians integrate these new technologies and services with more
traditional ones.

Transforming Traditional Libraries seeks papers for its inaugural issue.
We welcome papers that will inform, enlighten, amuse, and further the
discussion of librarians as they confront and solve the challenges of the
modern library.

Manuscripts should be between 2,000 and 6,000 words. They should be
submitted electronically, by either e-mail or by mailing the article on a
floppy disc, to the editors in either ASCII of HTML format. For the full
instructions for authors please see,

Please consult Transforming Traditional Libraries web page
( or e-mail the editors if you have
any questions.

Mark Dibble,
Reference Librarian, University of South Florida, Tampa

Joe Floyd,
Reference Librarian, University of South Florida, Tampa

Karen Swetland,
Reference Librarian, University of South Carolina, Spartanburg




Date: Sat, 8 Apr 2000 15:28:30 -0400 
From: "Adams, Michael" <>
To: "''" <>
Subject: ASIS-L: Urban Library Journal

Information about submissions and subscriptions to Urban Library Journal, a
publication of the Library Association of the City University of New York
(LACUNY), is now available on its Web site: .

Urban Library Journal, a refereed journal of research and discussion
dealing with all aspects of urban libraries and librarianship, welcomes
articles about academic, research, public, school, and special libraries
in an urban setting.

Urban Library Journal, formerly known as Urban Academic Librarian, also
invites submissions in broader areas such as public higher education, urban
studies, multiculturalism, library and educational services to immigrants,
preservation of public higher education, and universal access to World Wide
Web resources.

LACUNY plans for the full text of all issues of Urban Library Journal and
its predecessor to be available eventually on its Web site.

Information about "Information Literacy: Laying the Foundations," the May 19
LACUNY Institute, is available at .

Dr. Michael Adams
Editor, Urban Library Journal



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